People of the Time
Sample Biographies

This directory contains brief biographical sketches for many persons mentioned in The Joseph Smith Papers. These persons include church leaders, Smith family members, people Joseph Smith encountered in his travels, contributors to the cause, and acquaintances. The directory also includes information about the scribes of documents, as well as a few influential individuals named only in footnotes or other annotation.

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  • Beman (Beaman), Alvah(22 May 1775–15 November 1837)

    farmer; born at New Marlboro, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of Reuben Beman and Miriam. Married Sarah (Sally) Burtts, 18 August 1796, at Livonia, Livingston Co., New York. Moved from Massachusetts to Livonia, 1799. Lived at Livonia until forepart of 1831, when he moved to Avon, Livingston Co. Among the first to be acquainted with JS and his work at Palmyra, New York. Assisted JS in concealing Book of Mormon plates from a Palmyra mob and in fashioning a box to contain the plates. Appointed to preside over Kirtland elders quorum, 1836. Died at Kirtland.

    See Backman, Profile, 6; History of the Church, 2:43n, 370; Mary A. Noble, Reminiscences; Black, Membership of the Church, 4:657–658; Doxey, "Saints in Livingston County," 76; Livingston Co. Land Records, 2:40–41; 4:331–333; 8:593–594; 9:474–475; 1830 U.S. Census, Livonia, Livingston Co., New York; "Interview with Martin Harris," Tiffany's Monthly 5 (January 1859): 166–167, quoted in Porter, "Origins of the Church,” 81) and Ancestral File.

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  • Bishop, Francis Gladden(19 June 1809–30 November 1864)

    watchmaker; born at Livonia, Ontario (now Livingston) Co., New York. Son of Isaac Gates Bishop and Mary Hyde. Married Irene Overton, 16 September 1840. Served as a minister in Freewill Baptist church, before 1831. LDS baptism, July 1832. Engaged in extensive missionary work from North Carolina to Canada, 1833–1840, and served as president of the Westfield, New York, branch. On 28 September 1835, charged with "advancing heretical doctrines . . . derogatory to the character of the Church." Appointed member of Second Quorum of the Seventy, 1836. Heretical tendencies and subsequent repentance resulted in excommunication and then restoration to church membership on three occasions. Ordained an elder, 14 April 1840. Finally excommunicated at Nauvoo for purveying his own revelations as doctrine, 11 February 1842. In that year, organized schism called the "Kingdom of God." As self-proclaimed prophet, was instrumental in seven religious movements between 1847 and 1854. Lived at Kirtland, 1850. Later formed church that existed in Iowa until ca. 1860. Died at Salt Lake City Third Ward.

    See Kirtland Council Minutes, 28 September 1835, 119–122; Record of Seventies, bk. A, 8; History of the Church, 2:284–285; "Denominations That Base Their Beliefs on the Teachings of Joseph Smith," in Our Pioneer Heritage, 5:335–336; "A Summary," LDS Messenger and Advocate, January 1835, 63–64; Orson Hyde and William McLellin, letter to the editor, LDS Messenger and Advocate, April 1835, 103; "From the Letters of the Elders Abroad We Make the Following Extracts," LDS Messenger and Advocate, August 1835, 167; "Extracts of Conference Minutes," LDS Messenger and Advocate, September 1835, 186; "Conference," LDS Messenger and Advocate, June 1836, 335; "From Our Elders and Correspondents Abroad," LDS Messenger and Advocate, June 1837, 519; Francis Bishop, letter to the editor, Times and Seasons, March 1840, 77–78; Saunders, "Francis Gladden Bishop and Gladdenism," 7, 185, 256; "Although Dead, Yet He Speaketh," Millennial Star, 20 November 1846, 138–139; Salt Lake City, Utah, Death Records, bk. A, 1848–1866, 80; "Journal History," 17 February 1855; 1850 U.S. Census, Kirtland, Lake Co., Ohio; and Far West and Nauvoo Elders' Certificates, 1837–1838, 1840–1846, Church Archives, Salt Lake City.

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  • Black, Adam(11 September 1801–14 July 1890)

    farmer, judge; born at Henderson Co., Kentucky. Son of William Black and Jane Wilson. Moved to Missouri, 1819; elected sheriff of Ray Co., Missouri, 1824. Married Mary W. Morgan, 6 September 1825, at Ray Co. Moved to Daviess Co., Missouri, 1833, and built cabin on land that was later purchased from him by Lyman Wight and became part of the Mormon community of Adam-ondi-Ahman. Served as justice of the peace and county judge at Daviess Co. Filed a formal complaint and obtained a writ for the apprehension of JS and Lyman Wight for their intimidation of him at his home in Daviess Co. on 8 August 1838. In 1844, moved to Gentry Co., Missouri, where he served as judge. In 1861, moved to Livingston Co., Missouri, where he served as a county judge and was still residing in 1885. Died at Spring Hill, Livingston Co. Buried in Black Family Cemetery, Jackson Township, Livingston Co.

    See 1840 U.S. Census, Cravensville, Daviess Co., Missouri; 1850 U.S. Census, Allen Township, Gentry Co., Missouri; History of Daviess County, Missouri, 204, 355, 648; History of Caldwell and Livingston Counties, Missouri, 1004–1005; Baugh, "Call to Arms,” 102–113; Pedigree Resource File; and Berrett, Sacred Places, 4:439.

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  • Corrill, John(17 September 1794–26 September 1842)

    carriage builder; born near Barre, Worcester Co., Massachusetts. Parents unknown. Married Margaret (surname unknown), ca. 1830. Lived at Harpersfield, Ashtabula Co., Ohio, when Oliver Cowdery and his companions first taught him, 1830. LDS baptism, 10 January 1831, at Kirtland. Moved to Jackson Co., Missouri, 1831. Second counselor to Bishop Edward Partridge; presided over Independence, Jackson Co., branch of the church. Forced from Jackson Co. and located at Clay Co., Missouri, November 1833. Left Missouri to labor on Kirtland temple, 1834–1836. Received patriarchal blessing, 8 April 1835, at Kirtland. Expelled from Clay Co., 1836. Released as a counselor to Bishop Edward Partridge, 7 November 1837. Elected state representative from Caldwell Co., Missouri, 1838. Appointed church historian, 1838. Testified for the state November 1838 Richmond, Ray Co., Missouri, hearing. Excommunicated, 17 March 1839, at Quincy, Adams Co., Illinois. Published A Brief History of the Church of Christ of Latter Day Saints (Commonly Called Mormons), 1839. By 1840, resided at Quincy, where he swore affidavit relative to his losses and alluded to damages suffered by others in Missouri. Died at Adams Co.

    See Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:241–242; Encyclopedia of Latter-day Saint History, 251–252; Cook, Revelations, 68–69; Patriarchal Blessings, vol. 1; History of the Church, 3:283–284; Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 433–434; Adams Co., Illinois, Probate Letters of Administration, 1826–1849, C:162; Corrill, History of the Mormons; and 1830 U.S. Census, Harpersfield, Ashtabula Co., Ohio.

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  • Cowdery, Oliver(3 October 1806–3 March 1850)

    teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor; born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, 1825–1828. Taught term as local schoolmaster at Manchester, New York, 1828–1829. Assisted JS as scribe in translation of the Book of Mormon and with other clerical work. Received the Aaronic Priesthood at the hands of John the Baptist and the Melchizedek Priesthood and apostleship from Peter, James, and John, 1829. Appointed Second Elder, 1829. One of the Three Witnesses of the Book of Mormon. Helped oversee printing of the Book of Mormon by E. B. Grandin, 1829–1830. Among the six original members of the church, 6 April 1830. Led small group of missionaries to Ohio and Missouri on mission to unorganized Indian Territory, 1830–1831. Appointed to carry the revelations and printing money for the Book of Commandments to Missouri, 1831–1832. Assisted William W. Phelps in setting up and running the church's printing operations at Jackson Co., Missouri, 1832–1833. Married Elizabeth Ann Whitmer, daughter of Peter Whitmer Sr. and Mary Musselman, 1832, at Jackson Co. Member of the United Firm, Literary Firm, and Kirtland high council, 1832–1837. Edited The Evening and the Morning Star and Messenger and Advocate, 1833–1836, at Kirtland. Member of committee that selected and edited the revelations printed in the first edition of the Doctrine and Covenants, 1834–1835. Appointed assistant president of the church, 1834. Managed printing firm of F. G. Williams & Co., 1833–1835, at Kirtland. With the other members of the Three Witnesses and First Presidency, chose the first members of Quorum of the Twelve, 1835. Appointed as church recorder and compiled first patriarchal blessing book, 1835–1836. Member of Kirtland Safety Society, 1836–1837. Appointed vice-president of the church-owned Bank of Monroe (Michigan), 1837. Elected justice of the peace in Kirtland, 1837. Excommunicated from the church, 1838, but returned ten years later. During those ten years, actively involved as member of schoolteachers examiners board, active Democrat, and participant in other civic activities. Helped incorporate and affiliated himself for a time with the Methodist Protestant Church at Tiffin, 1843–1847. Practiced law at Tiffin, Ohio, 1840–1847, and Elkhorn, Wisconsin, 1847–1848. Ran unsuccessfully for Wisconsin state assembly, 1848. Coeditor of Walworth County Democrat, 1848. Migrated to Kanesville with his wife and sole surviving daughter, Maria Louise, 1848. Bore eloquent testimony of the Book of Mormon, mission of the late JS, and restoration of the priesthood, 1848. Met with combined high priest and high council gathering to request readmission to the church, 1848. Rebaptized by Orson Hyde, 12 November 1848. Expressed strong desire to immigrate to Great Basin and serve the church in whatever capacity he was needed, 1848–1849. Departed Council Bluffs to visit his wife's family at Richmond, Ray Co., Missouri, 1848–1850. Afflicted with chronic tuberculosis, unable to rejoin the Latter-day Saints and move west. Died at Richmond.

    See Jessee, "Writing of Joseph Smith's History," 440–442, 463; Cook, Revelations, 14; Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:246–251; Anderson, Investigating the Book of Mormon Witnesses, 37–65; Far West Minute Book; Kirtland Minute Book; "Cash Book of the Firm of F. G. Williams, & Co."; Wells, "Oliver Cowdery Monument"; and Ancestral File.

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  • Doniphan, Alexander William(9 July 1808–8 August 1887)

    born near Maysville, Mason Co., Kentucky. Son of Joseph Doniphan and Ann Smith. Entered Augusta College, a Methodist Episcopal academy at Augusta, Kentucky, 1822. Graduated with honors, 1826. Read law in office of jurist Martin Marshall of Augusta. Passed Kentucky bar examination, 1829. Located first at St. Louis, then opened law office at Lexington, Lafayette Co., Missouri, 1830. In 1833, moved to Liberty, Clay Co., Missouri, where shared law office with David Atchison and a lasting friendship developed. Employed as legal counsel by the Latter-day Saints during their expulsion from Jackson Co., Missouri, 1833. Elected to Missouri General Assembly representing Clay Co. as a Whig, 1836, 1840, 1854. Married Elizabeth Jane Thornton, daughter of John Thornton, a colleague in Missouri state legislature from Clay Co., 21 December 1837. Appointed brigadier general in state militia by Governor Lilburn Boggs. During Mormon difficulties of 1838, commanded 1st Brigade of Major General David Atchison's 3d Division of Missouri militia. Refused a direct order from Major General Samuel Lucas to execute JS and other church leaders at Far West, 1 November 1838. Again defended JS and others in courts, 1838–1839. Elected colonel of 1st Regiment Missouri Mounted Volunteers, which fought in Mexican War, 1846–1847. Returned to Liberty and resumed law practice. Commissioner of common schools for the county. Moved to St. Louis, 1863; remained there until 1869, when he removed to Richmond, Ray Co., Missouri. Doniphan, the county seat of Ripley Co., Missouri, was named after him, 1847. Non-professing Christian until 1860, when he joined the Liberty Christian Church. Visited Brigham Young in Salt Lake City, 1874. Died at Richmond but interred in his family plot at Liberty. Statue dedicated in his honor on the west lawn of the Richmond Courthouse, 1918.

    See Launius, Alexander William Doniphan; Launius, "A Question of Honor?"; Shoemaker, Missouri and Missourians, 702–724; Roller and Twyman, Encyclopedia of Southern History, 367; History of the Church, 1:425; 3:190n–191; Maynard, "Alexander Doniphan: Man of Justice," 462–472; Maynard, "Alexander William Doniphan, the Forgotten Man from Missouri"; and DuChateau, "Missouri Colossus"; Dawson, Doniphan's Epic March; History of Ray County, 498–502; and Smith, "Hero of Sacramento."

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  • Gause, Jesse(ca. 1784–ca. September 1836)

    schoolteacher; born at East Marlborough, Chester Co., Pennsylvania. Son of William Gause (Goss) and Mary Beverly. Joined the Society of Friends, 1806. Taught in the Friends' School at Wilmington, Delaware, 1812–1815. Married first Martha Johnson, 1815, at Philadelphia. After Martha died, 1828, married second Minerva (surname unknown) and joined the United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing (Shakers). Moved to Shaker community at North Union, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, 1831. LDS baptism, before March 1832, when with Sidney Rigdon, appointed counselor to JS. Traveled to Missouri with JS and others, April 1832. Began mission with Zebedee Coltrin planned to Shaker community at North Union, Thompson Township, Geauga Co., Ohio, and the Rappite community of Economy near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1 August 1832. Visited Minerva and tried to get her to leave the Shakers. On 19 August 1832, parted company with Coltrin. Apostatized and was excommunicated, 3 December 1832. Resided in Chester County, Pennsylvania, at time of his death.

    See Quinn, "Jesse Gause: Joseph Smith's Little-Known Counselor"; Woodford, "Jesse Gause, Counselor to the Prophet"; and Chester Co., Pennsylvania, Orphans Docket, 17:199.

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  • Greene, John Portineus(3 September 1793–10 September 1844)

    farmer, shoemaker; born at Herkimer, Herkimer Co., New York. Son of John Coddington Greene and Anna Chapman. Married Brigham Young's sister Rhoda Young, 11 February 1813. Member of the Methodist Episcopal church and for several years held an exhorter's license. Later joined the Methodist Reformed church and traveled about three years for that denomination. Lived at Mendon Township, Monroe Co., New York, 1827. United with local congregation of the Methodist Protestant church, 1828. LDS baptism by Eleazer Miller, 13 April 1832, at Mendon. Organized branch of the church at Warsaw, Genesee Co., New York, 1832. Migrated from New York to Kirtland, October 1832. Presided over branch at Parkman, Geauga Co., Ohio, 1833. Mission to New York and Mount Pleasant, Upper Canada (later Ontario), 1834. Served on Kirtland high council. Moved to Far West, February 1838. Participated in Battle of Crooked River, Ray Co., Missouri, 25 October 1838. Escaped north into Iowa and located at Quincy, Adams Co., Illinois, November 1838. Mission to eastern states, June–October 1839. Moved family from Quincy to Nauvoo, spring 1840. Elected to Nauvoo city council, 1841, and became city marshal, 1843. As marshal, directed by mayor (JS) and city council to suppress the Nauvoo Expositor press and destroy the "libelous handbills,” 10 June 1844. Among other city officials charged with incite to riot in the Expositor case who appeared before authorities in Carthage and posted bail pending trial date. Among the first to visit Emma Smith following death of her husband, 28 June 1844. Died at Nauvoo.

    See Green, "John Portenus Greene"; Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 2:633–636; Oaks and Hill, Carthage Conspiracy, 80; History of the Church, 3:347–348; 6:124; 7:63–64; and Black, Membership of the Church, 19:156–161.

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  • Harris, Martin(18 May 1783–10 July 1875)

    farmer; born at Easton, Albany (now Saratoga) Co., New York. Son of Nathan Harris and Rhoda Lapham. In 1793, moved with parents to Swift's Landing (later Palmyra), New York, area. Married his first cousin, Lucy Harris, a Quakeress, 1808, at Palmyra, Ontario Co., New York. Served in War of 1812 in Pardon Durfee's company of New York militia. Became respected landowner of some 320 acres. Deeded eighty acres to Lucy through her brother, Peter Harris, 1825. Reportedly investigated the Quakers, Universalists, Restorationists, Baptists, Methodists, and Presbyterians. Took a transcript of Book of Mormon characters to Charles Anthon and Samuel Latham Mitchell at New York City, February 1828. Assisted JS as a scribe during translation of the first 116 pages of the Book of Mormon, 12 April–14 June 1828. This manuscript was lost and not recovered, June–July 1828. One of the Three Witnesses to the Book of Mormon. LDS baptism by Oliver Cowdery, 6 April 1830, the day of its organization. Ordained a priest, by 9 June 1830. Paid printing costs for publication of the Book of Mormon through sale of 150 acres, 7 April 1831, to retire the original mortgage agreement with E. B. Grandin. Led members of the Manchester branch from Palmyra to Kirtland, May 1831. Ordained a high priest, 6 June 1831, at Kirtland. Participant in march of Zion's Camp, 1834. Member of Kirtland high council, 1834. Participated in selection of the members of Quorum of the Twelve, 1835. Dropped from Kirtland high council and subsequently excommunicated, December 1837. Rebaptized into the church, 1842, at Kirtland. Again left the church and joined the Shakers. Affiliated with James J. Strang; member of Strangite high council at Kirtland, 7 August 1846. Appointed as Strangite missionary to England, 7 August 1846. Joined with William McLellin, 1847. Leagued with William Smith to organize a church at Kirtland, 1858. Came to Salt Lake City, 1870. Rebaptized by Edward Stevenson in the Endowment House font and confirmed by Orson Pratt, 17 September 1870. Resided at Clarkston, Cache Co., Utah, where he died. Buried in the Clarkston Cemetery.

    See Cook, Revelations, 9; Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:271–276; Gunnell, "Martin Harris"; James, The Man Who Knew, 95–169; Anderson, Investigating the Book of Mormon Witnesses, chaps. 7–8; Tuckett and Wilson, Martin Harris Story, 10, 12, 17, 80; Largey, Book of Mormon Reference Companion, 134–139; Young, Strangite Mormons, 89; and Clark, Gleanings by the Way, 232–233.

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  • Hurlbut, Doctor Philastus(3 February 1809–16 June 1883)

    clergyman, farmer; born at Chittenden Co., Vermont. Parents unknown. As the seventh son, named "Doctor” by his parents. Attended school at Penn Yan, Yates Co., New York, as young man. LDS baptism, 1832 or 1833. Ordained an elder by Sidney Rigdon, 18 March 1833. Excommunicated for immorality, 3 June 1833. Restored to membership after confession, 21 June 1833. Again rejected and cut off for deception, 23 June 1833. Married Maria Sheldon Woodbury, 29 April 1834, at Ashtabula Co., Ohio. Employed by certain citizens of Geauga Co., Ohio, to collect information on the Smith family and the origin of the Book of Mormon. His findings were published in E. D. Howe's Mormonism Unvailed, 1834. Had a falling out with Howe over sale of the book to subscribers. Indicted for threatening JS's life, 1834. Lived at Elk Creek Township, Erie Co., Pennsylvania. Moved to Mentor, Geauga Co. Resided at Bedford, St. Laurence Co., Michigan, where he became United Brethren minister. Settled at Sandusky Co., Ohio. Died at Madison/Gibsonburgh, Sandusky Co.

    See Kirtland Minute Book, 18 March 1833, 14; 3 June 1833, 12; 21 June 1833, 21; 23 June 1833, 22; 1850 U.S. Census, Washington, Sandusky Co., Ohio; 1860 U.S. Census, Madison, Sandusky Co., Ohio; Hurlbut, Statement, 15 April 1885; Anderson, "Joseph Smith's New York Reputation Reappraised," 283–299; Winchester, Origin of the Spaulding Story, 5–11; Adams, "Dr. Philastus Hurlbut"; Sandusky Co., Ohio, Record of Births and Deaths, 1867–1916, 2:37; and Ashtabula County, Ohio, Marriage Records, vol. B, 1832–1842, 60.

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  • Photo of Orson Hyde
    Hyde, Orson(8 January 1805–28 November 1878)

    clerk, storekeeper, schoolteacher, editor, businessman, lawyer; born at Oxford, New Haven Co., Connecticut. Son of Nathan Hyde and Sally Thorpe. Joined the Methodist Church, ca. 1827. Later affiliated with the Reformed Baptist (later Disciples of Christ or Campbellite) movement and became a pastor of congregations at Elyria and Florence, Ohio. LDS baptism by Sidney Rigdon, 2 October 1831, at Kirtland. Baptized sixty during proselytizing mission with Samuel Smith to eastern states, 1832. Appointed clerk to First Presidency, 1833. Member of Kirtland high council, 1834. Participant in march of Zion's Camp, 1834. Married to Marinda Nancy Johnson by Sidney Rigdon, 4 September 1834, at Kirtland. Member of Quorum of the Twelve, 1835. Mission to western New York and Upper Canada (later Ontario), 1836. Mission to England with Heber Kimball, 1837–1838. Sided with dissenters against the church, 1838. With Thomas Marsh, swore and signed affidavit detrimental to JS and the church before Henry Jacobs, justice of the peace for Ray Co., Missouri, 24 October 1838. Lived at Howard Co., Missouri, winter 1838–1839. Although preserved from excommunication, his actions warranted careful consideration at the highest level. Restored to the church and to Quorum of the Twelve in full fellowship at Commerce (later Nauvoo), Hancock Co., Illinois, 27 June 1839. Member of Nauvoo city council, 1841. Mission to Palestine to dedicate and consecrate the Holy Land for the gathering of Israel. Offered dedicatory prayer in Jerusalem on the Mount of Olives, 24 October 1841. Participated in plural marriage at Nauvoo. Departed Nauvoo during the exodus to the West, mid-May 1846. Aided in the recruitment of Mormon Battalion at Council Bluffs, Pottawattamie Co., Iowa, July 1846, and in August was at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, to help collect monies donated to the church by the men of the battalion from their first pay. Mission to Great Britain, 1846–1847. Journeyed to Utah and back, 1850. Presided over the Latter-day Saints in Iowa, 1847–1852. Published Frontier Guardian at Kanesville (Council Bluffs), Pottawattamie Co., Iowa. Immigrated to Utah, 1852. Elected to Utah Territory legislative council, 27 November 1852. Presided over church in Carson Co., Nevada, headquartered at Genoa, 1855–1856. Assigned to Sanpete Co., Utah, as Twelve were sent to various sections of the territory, 1860. Died at Spring City, Sanpete Co.

    See Jessee, "Writing of Joseph Smith's History," 444, 463; Hyde, Orson Hyde; Cook, Revelations, 109–110; Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:80–82; Hill, "Historical Study of the Life of Orson Hyde"; and Barron, Orson Hyde: 19–21, 196.

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  • Photo of Heber Kimball
    Kimball, Heber Chase(14 June 1801–22 June 1868)

    blacksmith, potter; born at Sheldon, Franklin Co., Vermont. Son of Solomon Farnham Kimball and Anna Spaulding. Married Vilate Murray, 22 November 1822, at Mendon, Monroe Co., New York. Member of the Baptist church at Mendon, 1831. LDS baptism by Alpheus Gifford, 15 or 16 April 1832, at Mendon. Ordained an elder by Joseph Young, 1832. Moved to Kirtland, 1833. Participant in march of Zion's Camp, 1834. Ordained member of Quorum of the Twelve, 1835. Mission to the East with Quorum of the Twelve, 1835. Presided over first missionaries to go to British Isles, 1837–1838. Moved from Kirtland to Far West, 1838. Worked closely with Brigham Young and others in supervising the removal of the Latter-day Saints from Missouri, 1838–1839. Signed covenant that he would assist the Latter-day Saints in their removal from Missouri, 29 January 1839. Stayed in Missouri at great personal risk in order to be present at the Far West temple site on 26 April 1839, when members of Quorum of the Twelve covenanted to meet their missionary assignment to British Isles (D&C 118). In removing from Missouri, initially located at Quincy and then Commerce (later Nauvoo), Hancock Co., Illinois, May 1839. Mission with Brigham Young to British Isles, 1839–1841. Elected to Nauvoo city council, 1841. Participated in plural marriage at Nauvoo. Mission to eastern states, 1843. Traveled between Philadelphia and New York on the day of the assassination of JS and his brother Hyrum at Carthage, 27 June 1844. Continued the work of completing Nauvoo temple. Joined the exodus from Illinois into Iowa, February 1846. Member of Brigham Young's pioneer company to Salt Lake Valley, July 1847. Returned to Winter Quarters that same year. Sustained first counselor to Brigham Young in the First Presidency at the log tabernacle, Kanesville, Pottawattamie Co., Iowa, 27 December 1847. Elected lieutenant governor in provisional State of Deseret. Served in territorial legislature. Died at Salt Lake City. Interred in the Kimball-Whitney Cemetery, Salt Lake City.

    See Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:34–37; Whitney, Life of Heber C. Kimball; Kimball, Heber C. Kimball; Cook, Revelations, 263–264; Cook, Nauvoo Marriages Proxy Sealings, 32n3; Far West Committee Minutes, January–April 1839; History of the Church, 1:296n; and Black, Who's Who in the D&C, 160.

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  • King, Austin Augustus(21 September 1802–22 April 1870)

    lawyer; born at Sullivan Co., Tennessee. Son of Walter King and Nancy Sevier. Married Nancy Harris Roberts, May 1828, at Jackson, Tennessee. Moved to Missouri in 1830, where he practiced law at Columbia, Boone Co. Elected to state legislature as a Jacksonian Democrat from Boone Co., 1834 and 1836. In 1837, removed to Richmond, Ray Co., where received an appointment as circuit judge in northwestern Missouri by Governor Lilburn Boggs. Between 1837 and 1848, served as judge of Missouri's fifth judicial circuit, consisting of the counties of Clinton, Ray, Caldwell, Clay, Daviess, Carroll, and Livingston. In November 1838, presided at the hearing of JS and other Mormons at Richmond. Kingston, the Caldwell Co. seat after exodus of Mormons from Far West, named in his honor. Governor of Missouri, 1848–1852. Denounced secession during Civil War and represented Missouri as a Union Democrat in the U.S. Congress, 1862–1864. Resumed his law practice at Richmond, Ray Co., Missouri. While conducting a case before the U.S. circuit court at St. Louis, collapsed and was carried from the room. Died at St. Louis and buried in Richmond City Cemetery.

    See History of Ray County, 259, 261; Conard, Encyclopedia of the History of Missouri, 3:537; Malone, Dictionary of American Biography, 10:382; Shoemaker, Missouri and Missourians, 1:659–662; Bay, Reminiscences of the Bench and Bar of Missouri, 153–155, 637, 659, 935; Family Group Records; Pedigree Resource File; International Genealogical Index; and Who Was Who in America, historical vol. 1607–1896, 294.

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  • Knight, Lydia Goldthwaite Bailey(9 June 1812–3 April 1884)

    born at Sutton, Worcester Co., Massachusetts. Daughter of Jesse G. Goldthwaite and Sally Burt. Presbyterian influence in family home from mother. Married first Calvin Bailey, fall 1828, but was deserted by her husband, 1831. Returned to her parents' home. Moved to home of Eleazer Freeman Nickerson at Mount Pleasant, Upper Canada (later Ontario), February 1833. Attended Methodist meetings there. LDS baptism by JS, 27 October 1833, at Mount Pleasant. Again returned to parents at Villanova, Chautauqua Co., New York, 1834, but derided for her religion moved to Kirtland, 1835. While working for Hyrum Smith, met and married second to Newel Knight, who was boarding at the Hyrum Smith home, by JS, 24 November 1835, at Kirtland. Moved to Missouri, 1836, and Illinois, 1839. Left Nauvoo with Mormon exodus, 1846. Because of the death of her husband at Camp Ponca (Nebraska), did not arrive in Salt Lake Valley until 1850. Rebaptized by Robert Easton, 25 May 1850. Resided successively at Salt Lake City, Provo, Payson (near the ranch house of her son, Jesse Knight, west of Payson), Santa Clara, and St. George, Utah. Died at St. George, Washington Co., Utah.

    See Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 2:775–776; Hartley, Stand By My Servant Joseph; Lydia Knight's History, 12–23; Black, Membership of the Church, 18:620–622; Goddard, "Mormons in Mount Pleasant," appendix p. 1; and Cook, Revelations, 79.

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  • Knight, Newel(13 September 1800–11 January 1847)

    miller, farmer; born at Marlborough, Windham Co., Vermont. Son of Joseph Knight Sr. and Polly Peck. About 1809, moved with parents from Halifax, Windham Co., Vermont, to Bainbridge, Chenango Co., New York. Moved to Colesville Township, Broome Co., New York, 1811. Married first Sally Coburn, 7 June 1825. Joseph Knight Sr. hired JS as farmhand, 1826. Member of Universalist Church prior to conversion to LDS church. Baptized by David Whitmer, last week in May 1830, at Seneca Lake, Seneca Co., New York. Knight family formed nucleus of Colesville branch of the church, 1830. Newel Knight, branch president, led the Colesville branch from Broome Co. to Thompson, Geauga (later Lake) Co., Ohio, 1831. Colesville branch again moved, this time to Kaw Township, Jackson Co., Missouri, June–July, 1831. Ordained a high priest, before 3 July 1832. Expelled from Jackson Co., 1833. Member of Clay Co., Missouri, high council, 1834. Sally died at Turnham's Landing, Clay Co., 15 September 1834. Labored on Kirtland temple. Married second to Lydia Goldthwaite Bailey by JS, 24 November 1835, at Kirtland. Lived at Clay Co., 1836–1838. Located at Far West, February 1838. Member of Far West high council, 1837–1838. Left Far West during the exodus, 18 February 1839, locating temporarily at Worcester, Missouri, then Quincy, Adams Co., Illinois, where he swore affidavit regarding Missouri losses, 15 May 1839. Nauvoo high council member, 1839–1845. Left Nauvoo, 18 April 1846. On 23 July 1846, directed by Brigham Young to take wagon company to Rocky Mountains that season, but Young later canceled the assignment. Died in log cabin fort erected at Camp Ponca on Niobrara River in what is today Knox Co., Nebraska.

    See Knight, Journal; Hartley, Stand By My Servant Joseph; Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 2:773–775; Cook, Revelations, 78–79; Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 261; and Porter, "Origins of the Church," 183–185, 198–222, 296–311.

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  • Knight, Vinson(14 March 1804–31 July 1842)

    farmer, druggist; born at Norwich, Hampshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of Rudolphus Knight and Rispah (Rizpah) Lee. Married Martha McBride, 6 July 1826, at Perrysburg, Cattaraugus Co., New York. His people were "revised Christians.” Owned farm at Perrysburg when LDS baptism, spring 1834. Moved to Kirtland, by 1835. Ordained an elder, 2 January 1836. Ordained a high priest and appointed counselor to bishop Newel K. Whitney, 13 January 1836, at Kirtland. Stockholder in Kirtland Safety Society, 1837. Located at Adam-ondi-Ahman, Daviess Co., Missouri, summer 1838. Appointed as acting bishop at Adam-ondi-Ahman. Exiled from Missouri; located at Quincy, Adams Co., Illinois, 1839. Filed a redress petition at Commerce (later Nauvoo), Hancock Co., Illinois, for losses, October 1839. Church land agent; with others purchased thousands of acres in Half-breed Tract in Lee Co., Iowa, from Isaac Galland, 1839. Appointed bishop of Nauvoo Lower Ward, 6 October 1839. Elected to Nauvoo city council, 1 February 1841. Participated in plural marriage at Nauvoo. Died at Nauvoo.

    See Cook, Revelations, 265; Black, Who's Who in the D&C, 172–174; Cook, "Isaac Galland," 270–276; Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 261; and International Genealogical Index.

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  • Marsh, Thomas Baldwin(1 November 1800–1 January 1866)

    farmer, hotel worker, waiter, horse groom, grocer, type foundry worker, teacher; born at Acton, Middlesex Co., Massachusetts. Son of James Marsh and Molly Law. Married Elizabeth Godkin, 1 November 1820, at New York City. Joined Methodist Church at Boston but after two years withdrew from all sects. Introduced to Book of Mormon by Martin Harris, who gave him a sixteen-page signature at E. B. Grandin Print Shop at Palmyra, New York, fall 1829. Migrated from Charleston, Massachusetts, to Palmyra, New York, by September 1830. LDS baptism by David Whitmer, 3 September 1830, at Cayuga Lake, Seneca Co., New York. Ordained an elder by Oliver Cowdery, September 1830, at Whitmer home. Moved to Kirtland with Manchester branch of the church, May 1831. Ordained a high priest by Lyman Wight, 6 June 1831, at Kirtland. Mission to Missouri, June–August 1831. Moved with family to Jackson Co., Missouri, 10 November 1832. Later appointed president of Big Blue River, Jackson Co., branch. Expelled from Jackson Co., 1833. Member of Clay Co., Missouri, high council, 1834. Ordained member of original Quorum of the Twelve, 26 April 1835, at Kirtland. Sustained as president of Quorum of the Twelve, 2 May 1835. Mission with Twelve to eastern states and Canada, 1835. With David Patten, president pro tem of the church in Missouri, 5 February 1838. Withdrew from the church at Far West, 22 October 1838; journeyed to Richmond, Ray Co., Missouri, where he swore before magistrate that JS and the Mormon people were hostile toward state of Missouri. Excommunicated by tribunal, 17 March 1839, at Quincy, Adams Co., Illinois. Resided at Howard and Grundy counties, Missouri, until 1857. Met with church leaders at Council Bluffs, Pottawattamie Co., Iowa, and Florence, Nebraska, seeking admittance, January 1857. Directed to correspond with the First Presidency in Utah to request restoration of membership. Permission granted; rebaptized by Andrew Cunningham while en route to Salt Lake Valley, 16 July 1857, at Florence, Nebraska. Settled at Spanish Fork, Utah Co., Utah, where he taught school. Received endowment in the Endowment House, Salt Lake City, 1 November 1862. Moved to Ogden, Weber Co., Utah, latter part of 1862. Placed under care of David Stuart, who presided over Ogden First Ward, and provided with home. Reorganized church accounts state he was making overtures toward that denomination in last period of his life. LDS sources point to his active participation in high priests quorum; his sealing to Hannah Adams in Endowment House in 1862; and the report of his ecclesiastical leader that he "died in the faith of the gospel." Died at Ogden and buried in Ogden City cemetery.

    See Lichfield, "Thomas B. Marsh," 124–136, 167; Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:74–76; Cook, Revelations, 42–43; Deseret News, 24 March 1858, 18; Cook, "Thomas B. Marsh Returns"; Saints' Herald, 1 May 1866, 139; Black, Early Members of the Reorganized Church, 4:235; Romig, Early Jackson County, 13, 14, 32; Thomas B. Marsh, "History of Thos. Baldwin Marsh," Deseret News, 24 March 1858, 18; History of the Church, 1:655–657; Vital Records of Acton, 81; Utah Genealogical and Historical Magazine 27 (January 1936): 28; Ogden City Cemetery Records, 164; and Black, Who's Who in the D&C, 186–189.

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  • McBride, Reuben(16 June 1803–26 February 1891)

    born at Chester, Washington Co., New York. Son of Daniel McBride and Abigail Mead. Father was a Reformed Baptist (later Disciples of Christ or Campbellite) minister. Married Mary Ann Anderson, 22 September 1830, at Villanova, Chautauqua Co., New York. LDS baptism, 4 March 1834. Participant in march of Zion's Camp, 1836. Resided at Kirtland, 1836–1848. Member of Second Quorum of the Seventy, 1836. Received anointing in Kirtland temple, 30 January 1836. Placed in First Quorum of the Seventy, 1837. Assigned to oversee church interests there after the departure of the main body of the Latter-day Saints in 1838. Caretaker of Kirtland temple grounds. Ordained counselor in Kirtland bishopric, 22 May 1841. Migrated to Great Basin, before 1850. Returned to Kirtland, 1851, and led a remnant of church members to Utah, 1853. Located at Springville, Utah Co., Utah, and then settled at Fillmore, Millard Co., Utah, 1853. Member of Millard stake high council. Mission to England, 1867. Died at Fillmore.

    See Record of Seventies, bk. A, 7, 20; Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 4:690; Cook and Backman, Kirtland Elders' Quorum Record, 5, 57, 93; obit. of Reuben McBride, Deseret Evening News, 9 March 1891, 8; and Belnap, "Pioneer Incidents," 21.

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  • McCleary, Sophronia Smith Stoddard(18 May 1803–22 July 1876)

    born at Tunbridge, Orange Co., Vermont. Daughter of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack Smith. Sister of JS. Survived serious bout with typhoid fever at Lebanon Township, Grafton Co., New Hampshire, ca. 1813. Migrated with family from Norwich, Vermont, to Palmyra, Ontario Co., New York, 1816. Member of Western Presbyterian Church of Palmyra, 1820. Married first Calvin W. Stoddard, 30 December 1827, at Palmyra. Survived near-fatal illnesses, 1833 and 1839. Lived at Macedon, Wayne Co., New York, 1830. Resided at Kirtland by 1832. Calvin died, 19 November 1836, at Macedon. Married second William McCleary, 11 February 1838, at Kirtland. Left Kirtland in company with Joseph Smith Sr. and other Smith family members for Far West, May 1838, and Illinois, February 1839. Performed proxy baptism for the dead at Nauvoo, 1841. Lived at Ramus, Hancock Co., Illinois, 1843. Received endowment in Nauvoo temple, 23 December 1845, and sealed to William, 27 January 1846. With daughter Maria, lived with sister, Lucy Smith Millikin, by 1850. Lived with daughter, Maria Woolley, at Tennessee Township, McDonough Co., Illinois, 1860. Baptized into reorganized church, 8 April 1873. Died at Fountain Green, Hancock Co, and was buried in Mount Auburn Cemetery at Colchester, McDonough Co.

    See Anderson, Lucy's Book, 842–843; Procter and Procter, History of Joseph Smith by His Mother, 66n1, 69–71, 85–86, 91n9, 94, 147n7, 324, 366n2; Walker, "Joseph Sr. and Lucy Mack Smith Family," 260–261; "Early Church Families," Utah Genealogical and Historical Magazine 26 (July 1935): 102, 151; Anderson, "What were Joseph Smith's Sisters Like?" 42–44; conference notes, Saints' Herald, 1 May 1873, 284; Black and Black, Annotated Record of Baptisms for the Dead, 4:2382; 1830 U.S. Census, Macedon, Wayne Co., New York, 99; "Journal History," 29 Feb 1832; Geauga County, Ohio, Marriage Records, 1806–1920, C:262; 1860 U.S. Census, Tennessee Township, McDonough Co., Illinois; Berrett, Sacred Places: 2:186–187; Hartley and Baugh, "Ramus/Macedonia (Illinois) Markers Dedicated," 144; O'Driscoll, Hyrum Smith, 19, 32–33; and obit. of "Sofronia McClerry," Saints' Herald, 1 October 1876, 607.

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  • McCleary, William(9 October 1793–ca. 1847)

    wagonmaker; born at Rupert, Bennington Co., Vermont. Parents unknown. Married JS's widowed older sister, Sophronia Smith Stoddard, 11 February 1838, at Kirtland. Received patriarchal blessing from Joseph Smith Sr., 2 October 1837, at Kirtland. Ordained an elder by Reuben Hedlock, 26 February 1838, at Kirtland. Left Ohio for Caldwell Co., Missouri, in company of Joseph Smith Sr. family, May 1838. Exiled from Missouri, February 1839, and located initially at Quincy, Adams Co., Illinois. Resided at Kirtland, March 1841. Lived at Ramus, Hancock Co., Illinois, when appointed to conduct election for a board of trustees for that community, 3 March 1843. Received endowment in Nauvoo temple, 23 December 1845, and sealed to Sophronia, 27 January 1846. Built wagons in Nauvoo in preparation for Mormon exodus, 1845–1846, but remained in Illinois.

    See Anderson, "What Were Joseph Smith's Sisters Like?" 42–43; Anderson, Lucy's Book, 842–843; Cook and Backman, Kirtland Elders' Quorum Record, 40, 53, 93; Scofield, History of Hancock County, 1:671; and Nauvoo Temple Endowment Register, 50.

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  • McLellin, William E.(18 January 1806–24 April 1883)

    farmer, schoolteacher, physician, publisher; born at Smith Co., Tennessee. Son of Charles McLellin and unknown mother. Married first Cynthia Ann (surname unknown), 30 July 1829. LDS baptism by Hyrum Smith, 20 August 1831, at Jackson Co., Missouri. Ordained an elder by Hyrum Smith and Edward Partridge, 24 August 1831. Reached Kirtland, 12 October 1831. After two difficult short-term missions and death of Cynthia Ann, married second Emeline Miller, 26 April 1832, at Ravenna, Portage Co., Ohio. Left Ohio for Independence, Jackson Co., Missouri, 2 May 1832. Purchased two lots in Independence, by 16 June 1832. Excommunicated on unspecified charges by Kirtland high council, 3 December 1832. Mission to Missouri and Illinois with Parley Pratt, January–June 1833. Apprehended Richard McCarty in act of stoning Algernon Sidney Gilbert store and was in turn arrested on charge of "assault and battery" on McCarty and jailed, 1–2 November 1833. Fled with fellow Latter-day Saints from Jackson Co. into Clay Co., Missouri, November 1833. Proselytized in Indiana on his way to Kirtland, 1834. Appointed as instructor in Kirtland School held in print shop, 1834–1835. Appointed and ordained one of Quorum of the Twelve, 15 February 1835. Disfellowshipped over difficulties arising during eastern mission by Quorum of the Twelve but reinstated on 26 September 1835. Wrote letter of withdrawal from church, August 1836. Again sustained to Quorum of the Twelve, 3 September 1837, at Kirtland. In Far West, accepted commission from Governor Lilburn Boggs as captain in 1st Company, 59th Regiment, 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division of Missouri state militia, 22 November 1837. Again left church, 1838, in Missouri. Joined with others in persecution of Mormons, 1838. Resided at Scott Co., Iowa, 1840, and at Hampton, Rock Island Co., Illinois, 1845. Ordained to high priesthood of The Church of Jesus Christ, the Bride of the Lamb's Wife with George Hinkle, 24 June 1844, at Buffalo, Ohio. Editor and publisher of the Ensign, printed by that body. Subsequently associated with variety of other religious factions organized under leadership of William Law, Sidney Rigdon, McLellin himself, James J. Strang, David Whitmer, and Granville Hedrick. While at Independence, broke with all organized religious groups, 1869. Died at Independence and buried in Woodlawn Cemetery.

    See Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:82–83; Cook, Revelations, 106–107; Porter, "Odyssey of William Earl McLellin"; Black, Membership of the Church, 30:377–382; Young, Strangite Mormons, 132; and "Book for Record," 3 December 1832, p. XXX herein.

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  • Millikin, Lucy Smith(8 July 1821–9 December 1882)

    born at Palmyra, Ontario Co., New York. Daughter of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack. Initially raised in what was primarily a Presbyterian household. LDS baptism, possibly 1830. Migrated from Seneca Falls Township, Seneca Co., New York, to Kirtland with the Lucy Mack Smith company of Fayette branch members, May 1831. Received patriarchal blessing from Joseph Smith Sr., 9 December 1834, at Kirtland. Moved to Far West, summer 1838. Arthur participated in Battle of Crooked River, Ray Co., Missouri, 25 October 1838. Accompanied future husband and parents to Quincy, Adams Co., Illinois, February 1839. Located at Commerce (later Nauvoo), Hancock Co., Illinois, May 1839. Married to Arthur Millikin by JS, 4 June 1840, in Mansion House, Nauvoo. Performed proxy baptism for deceased aunt, Lovina Mack Tuttle. Moved briefly to Maine, where first child was born; returned to Nauvoo. Cared for her widowed mother, Lucy Mack Smith, for several years following the martyrdom of JS and Hyrum. Baptized into reorganized church, 8 April 1873. Settled at Colchester, McDonough Co., Illinois, early 1850s. Died near Colchester. Buried in Widow Moore Cemetery, immediately northwest of Colchester.

    See Walker, "Joseph Sr. and Lucy Mack Smith Family," 280; Anderson, "What were Joseph Smith's Sisters Like?" 42–44; Ancestral File; Calvin N. Smith and Robert A. Brown, "She Was 'Comfort, Blessing' to Parents," Church News, 28 January 1989, 7; "Tuesday, April 8th," Saints' Herald, 1 May 1873, 284; Patriarchal Blessings Index; Black and Black, Annotated Record of Baptisms for the Dead, 4:2503; and Porter, "Origins of the Church," 125, 129n106, 314–315.

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  • Mulholland, James(1804–3 November 1839)

    born at Armagh, Ireland. Family migrated to Halton Co., Upper Canada (later Ontario). LDS baptism in Upper Canada. Married Sarah Scott, 8 February 1838, at Far West. Engaged in clerical work for JS, 1838, at Far West. Held certain papers belonging to JS while JS imprisoned at Missouri, 1838–1839. As custodian of manuscript of JS's translation of the Bible, saw to its safety from the mob and removal to Illinois through the assistance of Ann Scott and Emma Smith, who carried it under their skirts. Ordained a Seventy "to be a special witness to the nations of the earth," 28 December 1838. After expulsion from Missouri, resided at Quincy, Adams Co., Illinois, spring 1839. Relocated at Commerce (later Nauvoo), Hancock Co., Illinois, May 1839. Scribe in dictation of JS's personal history, beginning 11 June 1839. Only fifty-nine pages of the history were completed before Mulholland's death. Drew from an 1838 history prepared by JS and Sidney Rigdon while still at Far West. Gave statement concerning his witnessing of the vandalizing of certain property during the 1838 Mormon War in Missouri, March 1839. Appointed clerk for land contracts and sub-treasurer of the church at Commerce, 20 October 1839. Died at Commerce.

    See Jessee, "The Writing of Joseph Smith's History," 441, 450–451, 463; Cook, Nauvoo Marriages Proxy Sealings, 15n1; Leonard, Nauvoo, 57–58, 228–229; Record of Seventies, bk. A, 55; obit. for James Mulholland, Times and Seasons, December 1839, 32; Family Group Records Collection; History of the Church, 3:286–288, 375; 4:16, 17, 88–89; Black, Membership of the Church, 31:954; Pope, County of Halton,Ontario, 59; Cooper, "Spiritual Reminiscences"; Emma Smith to Joseph Smith, 9 March 1839, in JS, Letterbook; Pope, Historical Atlas of the County of Halton; Ancestral File.

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  • Nickerson, Freeman(5 February 1779–12/22 January 1847)

    farmer; born at (South) Dennis, Barnstable Co., Massachusetts. Son of Eleazer Nickerson and Thankful Chase. Immigrated to Windsor Co., Vermont, 1800. Married Huldah Chapman, 10 January 1801, at Cavendish, Windsor Co. During War of 1812, appointed 3rd Lieutenant in Vermont 31st Infantry, 30 April 1813; promoted to 2nd Lieutenant, 11 January 1814. Moved to Susquehanna Co., Pennsylvania, 1814. Resided in Buffalo Township, Erie Co., New York, 1824. Located at South Dayton, Perrysburg Township, Cattaraugus Co., New York, 1825. LDS baptism by Zerubbabel Snow, April 1833, at Dayton, and soon after ordained a deacon. Visited JS, September 1833, at Kirtland, and induced JS and Sidney Rigdon to accompany him to Mount Pleasant, Upper Canada (later Ontario), to proselytize among his children. With JS at Mount Pleasant, October 1833. Along with two sons, Chittenden and Levi, marched with Zion's Camp, 1834. Member of elders quorum. Recommended as "worthy of standing in the seventies," 28 December 1838. Journeyed to Missouri, 1839, only to find that the Latter-day Saints had been driven out. Located first at Quincy and then Commerce (later Nauvoo), Hancock Co., Illinois, 1839. Mission to Vermont and Massachusetts, 1841. With Erastus Snow, organized branch of the church at Boston, Massachusetts, March 1842. Participated in plural marriage at Nauvoo. Left Nauvoo for the West during Mormon exodus, September 1846. Died on Chariton River, Iowa Territory.

    See State of Vermont Roster of Soldiers in the War of 1812–1814, 313; Record of Seventies, bk. A, 55–56; High Priest Quorum Genealogical Records; History of the Church, 1:416; 2:184; Black, Membership of the Church, 32:641–644; Larson, Erastus Snow, 70–71; Goddard, "Mormons in Mount Pleasant," 2–3; Pedigree Resource File.

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  • Page, John Edward(25 February 1799–14 October 1867)

    born at Trenton Township, Oneida Co., New York. Son of Ebenezer Page and Rachel Hill. Married first Betsey Thompson, 1831, at Huron Co., Ohio. LDS baptism by Emer Harris, 18 August 1833, at Brownhelm, Lorain Co., Ohio. Ordained an elder by his brother, Ebenezer Page, 12 September 1833, at Florence, Erie Co., Ohio. Betsey died, 1 October 1833. Married second Lavona Stephens, 26 December 1833, at Huron Co. Moved to Kirtland, 1835. Member of Second Quorum of the Seventy, 1836. Missions to Leeds Co., Upper Canada (later Ontario), 1836–1837. Baptized some six hundred persons during this period. Led Canada company to Missouri, 1838. Locating initially at De Witt, Carroll Co., and then Far West. "Chosen by revelation to fill the place of Luke Johnson one of the twelve,” 23 January 1838, but not ordained to that office until 19 December 1838 at Far West. Lavona died, 1 November 1838. Covenanted at Far West to assist the Latter-day Saints in their removal from Missouri, 29 January 1839. Married third Mary Judd, ca. January 1839. During exodus from Missouri, returned to Far West with Brigham Young, 26 April 1839, to fulfill provision specified in D&C 118. Moved to Warsaw, Hancock Co., Illinois, 1839. Failed to carry out 1840 mission call to accompany Orson Hyde to Palestine. Preaching in eastern states, particularly in Pittsburgh and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1841–1842. Presided over the church in Pittsburgh and published The Gospel Light, 1843. Labored in Washington, D.C., 1843–1844. Returned to Nauvoo; absented himself from meetings with Quorum of the Twelve and openly supported James J. Strang's claim as successor to JS. Disfellowshipped, 9 February 1846, and excommunicated, 26 June 1846. Joined with Strang's Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Strangite), and was appointed president of their twelve apostles. Resided at Voree, Racine Co., Wisconsin. Editor of Zion's Reveille, 1847. Left Strang and embraced the doctrines of James C. Brewster's faction, 1849. Held services on his own with a circle of friends, including William Marks, by 1855. Formally affiliated with the Church of Christ (Hedrickites), 17 May 1863. Ordained Hedrick as president of the high priesthood, 1863. At time of death, resided near Sycamore, DeKalb Co., Illinois.

    See Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:92–93; Quist, "John E. Page"; Cook, Revelations, 232–233; Shields, Divergent Paths of the Restoration, 39–41, 76; Record of Seventies, bk. A, 7, 40; Ancestral File; and Huron Co., Ohio, Marriage Record, 1:144, 1:202.

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  • Partridge, Edward(27 August 1793–27 May 1840)

    hatter; born at Pittsfield, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of William Partridge and Jemima Bidwell. Married Lydia Clisbee, 22 August 1819, at Painesville Township, Geauga Co., Ohio. Initially was a Universal Restorationer but had embraced the Campbellite faith when first contacted by Mormon missionaries in November 1830. With Sidney Rigdon, elected to visit JS at Fayette, Seneca Co., New York. LDS baptism by JS, 11 December 1830, in Seneca River. Ordained an elder by Sidney Rigdon, December 1830. Named first bishop in the church, 1831, at Kirtland. Accompanied JS to Missouri and called to oversee settlement of the Latter-day Saints in Missouri, summer 1831. Heavily involved in acquisition of lands and administering stewardships under law of consecration. Tarred and feathered during mob violence in Jackson Co., Missouri, July 1833. Fled with family to Clay Co., Missouri, November 1833. Instrumental in unsuccessful negotiations to restore Mormons to their Jackson Co. lands and obtain redress. Mission in eastern states and New England, 1835. Forced to move from Clay Co. to Caldwell Co., Missouri, fall 1836. Witnessed the expulsion of the Saints from Missouri and was himself jailed at Richmond, Ray Co., Missouri, November 1838. Exiled from the state; swore affidavit for property losses and damages, 15 May 1839, at Quincy, Adams Co., Illinois. Appointed bishop of Nauvoo Upper Ward, 1839. Died at Nauvoo.

    See Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:218–222; Wixom, Edward Partridge; Cook, Revelations, 53–54; Black, Membership of the Church, 10:445; and Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 512–515.

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  • Patten, David Wyman(14 November 1799–25 October 1838)

    farmer; born in Vermont. Son of Benoni Patten and Edith Cole. Family located in Theresa at Indian River Falls, Jefferson Co., New York. Lived at Monroe Co., Michigan, 1828, when he married Phoebe Ann Babcock. Affiliated with the Methodists prior to conversion to LDS church. LDS baptism by his brother, John Patten, 15 June 1832, at Fairplay, Greene Co., Indiana. Ordained an elder by Elisha Groves, 17 June 1832. Mission to Michigan, 1832. Ordained a high priest by Hyrum Smith, 2 September 1832. Mission to eastern states, 1832–1833. Moved his family from Michigan to Florence, Erie Co., Ohio, 1833. With William Pratt, left Kirtland carrying dispatches to church leaders in Clay Co., Missouri, from JS, 19 December 1833. Mission to Tennessee with Warren Parrish, 1834. Noted for his success in administering the healing ordinance. Ordained a member of Quorum of the Twelve, 15 February 1835, at Kirtland. Moved from Kirtland to Far West, 1836. Captain, Missouri state militia. Commanded Mormon cavalry at Far West. Mortally wounded during Battle of Crooked River, Ray Co., while attempting to rescue brethren kidnapped by Captain Samuel Bogart. Died at the home of Stephen Winchester, about three miles south of Far West. Buried at Far West, 27 October 1838.

    See Cook, Revelations, 226; Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:76–80; "History of David Patten," Deseret News, 24 March 1858, 18–20; and Whiting, David W. Patten.

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  • Phelps, William Wines(17 February 1792–7 March 1872)

    newspaper editor; born at Hanover, Morris Co., New Jersey. Son of Enon Phelps and Mehitabel Goldsmith. Moved with parents to Homer, Onondaga Co., New York, 1800. Married Sally Waterman, 1815. Located at Trumansburg, Thompkins Co., New York, 1823. Founding member of Anti-Masonic Party in New York, 1827–1828. Edited an Anti-Masonic newpaper, the Lake Light, at Trumansburg. Moved to Canandaigua, Ontario Co., New York, where he became editor of another of the movement's papers, the Ontario Phoenix, 1828. Obtained copy of the Book of Mormon from Parley Pratt, 9 April 1830. Met JS for first time, 21 December 1830, at Whitmer farm, Fayette, Seneca Co., New York. Migrated to Kirtland, 1831. LDS baptism and ordained an elder by JS, 16 June 1831, at Kirtland. Directed to settle at Jackson Co., Missouri, to establish a printing press. Removed to Jackson Co., August 1831. Became editor of The Evening and the Morning Star and Upper Missouri Advertiser, published 1832–1833 at Independence, Jackson Co. Essentially established the church publishing enterprise. Published the Book of Commandments, but most copies destroyed by mob action when printing office was razed, 20 July 1833. Forced exile from Jackson Co. to Clay Co., Missouri, November 1833. Appointed counselor to President David Whitmer in Clay Co., 3 July 1834. Appointed to return to Kirtland to assist in printing firm. Helped compile Doctrine and Covenants and first LDS hymnal, 1835, at Kirtland. Prolific writer of hymns. Acted as a scribe for JS in the translation of book of Abraham. Participated in dedication of Kirtland temple, 27 March 1836. Returned from Kirtland to Clay Co., where he again discharged duties with David Whitmer's presidency, 1836. Disputations with Latter-day Saints at Far West resulted in his excommunication, 10 March 1838. Located at Dayton, Ohio. Reconciled with the church, July 1840; joined the body of the Latter-day Saints at Nauvoo, 1841. Acted as clerk to JS and and was assistant editor of Times and Seasons and Nauvoo Neighbor. Participated in plural marriage at Nauvoo. Came to Great Basin, 1849. Admitted to Utah territorial bar, 1851. Elected to territorial legislative assembly, 1851–1857. Published a series of Deseret Almanacs. Died at Salt Lake City.

    See Jessee, "Writing of Joseph Smith's History," 441, 446, 463; Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 3:692–697; Bowen, "Versatile W. W. Phelps"; Crawley, Descriptive Bibliography, 17–18, 25; Van Orden, "W. W. Phelps"; Cook, Revelations, 87–88; "Saturday, April 7,—10 A.M.," Deseret News, 11 April 1860, 45, 48; Salt Lake City Cemetery Records, 1847–1976; and 1800 U.S. Census, Homer, Onondaga Co., New York.

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  • Pratt, Orson(19 September 1811–3 October 1881)

    farmer, writer, teacher, merchant, surveyor; born at Hartford, Washington Co., New York. Son of Jared Pratt and Charity Dickinson. Younger brother of Parley Pratt. LDS baptism by Parley Pratt, 19 September 1830, at Canaan, Columbia Co., New York. Ordained an elder by JS, 1 December 1830, in New York, and appointed to mission to Colesville, Broome Co., New York. With Samuel Smith, traveled from New York to Kirtland, arriving on 27 February 1831. Mission with Lyman Johnson to the East from Kirtland, February 1832. Participant in march of Zion's Camp, 1834. Ordained member of Quorum of the Twelve, 26 April 1835, at Kirtland. Married Sarah Marinda Bates, 4 July 1836, at Henderson, Jefferson Co., New York. Mission to Upper Canada (later Ontario), 1836. Mission to Great Britain with other members of Quorum of the Twelve, 1839–1841; spent several months in Scotland. Participated in plural marriage at Nauvoo. Excommunicated, 20 August 1842, at Nauvoo. Rebaptized, 20 January 1843, and ordained to his former office in Quorum of the Twelve. Elected to Nauvoo city council, 1843. Entered Salt Lake Valley with Mormon pioneers, 1847. Presided over church in Great Britain, 1848. Member of Utah territorial legislature. Appointed church historian, 1874. Died at Salt Lake City.

    See "History of Orson Pratt," Deseret News, 9 June 1858, 65–66; Cook, Revelations, 49–51; England, Life and Thought of Orson Pratt; and Porter, "Origins of the Church," 98–99, 206, 263, 297.

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  • Photo of Parly Pratt
    Pratt, Parley Parker(12 April 1807–13 May 1857)

    farmer, editor, legislator; born at Burlington, Otsego Co., New York. Son of Jared Pratt and Charity Dickinson. Elder brother of Orson Pratt. Affiliated with Baptist church at age eighteen. Married first Thankful Halsey, 9 September 1827, at Canaan, Columbia Co., New York. Proselytized to the Reformed Baptist (later Disciples of Christ or Campbellite) faith by Sidney Rigdon, 1829. LDS baptism and ordained an elder by Oliver Cowdery, 1 September 1830, at Seneca Lake, Seneca Co., New York. Mission to unorganized Indian Territory and Missouri with Oliver Cowdery and others, 1830–1831. Stopped at Kirtland and vicinity en route; baptized some one hundred thirty individuals. Traveled with march of Zion's Camp, 1834. Ordained member of Quorum of the Twelve, 1835. Married second Mary Ann Frost Stearns, 9 May 1837, at Kirtland. First lieutenant (probably elected) in Missouri state militia, 1838. Member of David Patten's company at Battle of Crooked River, Ray Co., Missouri, 25 October 1838. Jailed at Richmond, Ray Co., and Columbia, Boone Co., Missouri, 1838–1839. Missions to England, 1839–1841. Edited first number of the Millennial Star published in Manchester, England, 27 May 1840. President of British Mission, 1841–1842. Directed affairs of the church in New York City, 1844–1845. Participated in plural marriage at Nauvoo. Migrated to Salt Lake Valley, 1847. Led exploration party into southern Utah, 1850. Mission to South America, 1851–1852. Murdered at Van Buren, Crawford Co., Arkansas.

    See Cook, Revelations, 45–47; Cook, Nauvoo Marriages Proxy Sealings, 16n1; Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:83–85; and Baugh, "Call to Arms," 385.

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  • Photo of Willard Richards
    Richards, Willard(24 June 1804–11 March 1854)

    medical doctor; born at Hopkinton, Middlesex Co., Massachusetts. Son of Joseph Richards and Rhoda Howe. At age seventeen, wished to join Congregational church, but church disregarded his request for admission. LDS baptism, 1836. Mission to England, 1837–1841. Married Jennetta Richards, 1838, in England. Ordained to Quorum of the Twelve, 14 April 1840, at Preston, England. Served as temple recorder, recorder of city council, clerk of municipal court, church historian, and private secretary to JS. Before the death of JS, completed personal history of JS to August 1838 and compiled many of the documents that were later used to complete the history of the Nauvoo years by 1856. Elected to Nauvoo city council, 1841. Participated in plural marriage at Nauvoo. With JS and Hyrum Smith when they were killed in Carthage Jail, Illinois, 1844. Migrated to Great Basin, 1847. Appointed second counselor to Brigham Young in church presidency, 1847. Secretary of Utah Territory, postmaster of Salt Lake City, and editor of the Deseret News. Died at Salt Lake City.

    See Jessee, "Writing of Joseph Smith's History," 441, 445, 454–457, 463; Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:53–56; Noall, Intimate Disciple; Leonard, Nauvoo, 228; Cook, Nauvoo Marriages Proxy Sealings, 112n1; and "History of Williard Richards," Millennial Star 27 (1865): 18–20, 133–136, 150–152, 165.

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  • Rigdon, Sidney(19 February 1793–14 July 1876)

    tanner, farmer, minister; born St. Clair Township, Allegheny Co., Pennsylvania. Son of William Rigdon and Nancy Gallaher. In 1817, joined the United Baptists. Preaching at Warren, Trumbull Co., Ohio, and vicinity, 1819–1921. Married Phoebe Brook, 12 June 1820, at Warren. Minister of First Baptist Church of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1821–1824. Later joined the Reformed Baptist (later Disciples of Christ or Campbellite) movement and was an influential preacher. Introduced to Mormonism by his friend and former proselyte to Campbellite faith, Parley Pratt, who was en route with Oliver Cowdery and others on mission to unorganized Indian territory. Scribe for JS, 1830. LDS baptism, 14 November 1830, by Oliver Cowdery. Accompanied JS to Upper Canada (later Ontario) on proselytizing mission and helped keep JS's diary during the trip, 1833. Counselor in church presidency, 1833–1844. Arrived at Far West from Kirtland, 4 April 1838. With JS in jail at Liberty, Clay Co., Missouri, November 1838 to February 1839, when released on bail. Left Missouri and found refuge with Judge John Cleveland at Quincy, Adams Co., Illinois. Wrote to U.S. Attorney General Felix Grundy from Quincy requesting instructions and actions relative to what he termed unconstitutional treatment of the Latter-day Saints in Missouri, 23 February 1839. Accompanied JS to Washington, D.C., to seek redress for Missouri grievances, 1839–1840. Member of Nauvoo city council; postmaster of Nauvoo. Claimed right to lead the church after death of JS; excommunicated, 1844. Moved to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where he organized the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, 1844; name changed to Church of Christ, 1845. Located with followers near Greencastle, Antrim Township, Franklin Co., Pennsylvania, 1845. Rigdon resided at Greencastle while the majority of followers lived on "Adventure Farm” immediately west. Church disorganized in 1847. Removed to Friendship, Allegany Co., New York, where he died. Buried in Maple Grove Cemetery at Friendship.

    See Jessee, "Writing of Joseph Smith's History," 443–444, 463; George Messinger Jr., South Bainbridge, New York, to S. Presson Landers, Prompton, Wayne Co., Pennsylvania; Cook, Revelations, 52–53; Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:31–34; McKiernan, Voice of One Crying in the Wilderness; Van Wagoner, Sidney Rigdon, 62; Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 737–738; Gregory, "Sidney Rigdon"; Smith, "Biography of Sidney Rigdon"; and Berrett, Sacred Places, 2:298–300, 242–247.

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  • Salisbury, Katharine Smith(28 July 1813–2 February 1900)

    born at West Lebanon, Grafton Co., New Hampshire. Daughter of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack and sister of JS. Although there are several variants in the spelling of her first name, she consistently used "Katharine” in her late holograph letters, 1865–1899. LDS baptism by David Whitmer, 9 June 1830, at Seneca Lake, Seneca Co., New York. Married to Wilkins Jenkins Salisbury by Sidney Rigdon, 8 June 1831, at home of her sister Sophronia Smith Stoddard at Kirtland. Mother of eight children. Heard the recitals of JS concerning heavenly visitations and reported that she actually lifted the golden plates. Migrated to Kirtland from Seneca Co. in the Lucy Mack Smith company of Fayette branch Latter-day Saints, May 1831. After marriage, settled at Chardon, Geauga Co., Ohio, 1831. Left Ohio for Far West, in company with her father's family, May 1838. Moved to Illinois during the exodus; located at Quincy, Adams Co., Illinois; Nauvoo; and then Plymouth, Hancock Co., Illinois, 1839. After the martyrdom, moved to Nauvoo; lived with other members of Smith family in home of William Marks, 1845. Moved to Warsaw, Hancock Co., ca. 1847. Resided at Webster, Hancock Co., fall 1847. Wilkins died at Plymouth, 1853. Married Joseph Younger, 1857, but little is known of him. Eventually affiliated with reorganized church, 1873. Attended Pilot Grove branch of reorganized church, over which her son Solomon presided. Maintained contact with relatives and friends in Utah until her death at Fountain Green, Hancock Co. Buried in Webster Cemetery. Was last surviving member of the Joseph Sr. and Lucy Mack Smith family.

    See Walker, "Katharine Smith Salisbury's Recollections"; Walker, "Joseph Sr. and Lucy Mack Smith Family," 273–275; "Early Church Families," Utah Genealogical and Historical Magazine 26 (1935): 102, 151–152; McGavin, Family of Joseph Smith, 95–108; Anderson, "What Were Joseph Smith's Sisters Like?" 42–44; and Porter, "Origins of the Church," 261.

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  • Salisbury, Wilkins Jenkins(6 January 1809–28 October 1853)

    lawyer, blacksmith; born at Rushville, Yates Co., New York. Son of Gideon Salisbury and Elizabeth Shields. Married JS's sister Katharine Smith, 8 June 1831, at Kirtland. LDS baptism in New York. Settled at Chardon, Geauga Co., Ohio. Participated in march of Zion's Camp, 1834. Member of First Quorum of the Seventy, 1835. Excommunicated for "unchristianlike conduct," such as "talebearing and drinking strong liquor," 1836. Left Ohio for Far West in company with Joseph Smith Sr. family, May 1838. Exiled from Missouri; located first at Nauvoo and then Plymouth, Hancock Co., Illinois, 1839. Moved to Nauvoo and lived with other Smith family members at William Marks home, 1845. Resided at Warsaw, Hancock Co., ca. 1847. Lived at Webster, Hancock Co., 1847. Died of typhoid fever at Plymouth. Buried at Webster.

    See Walker, "Katharine Smith Salisbury's Recollections," 4–8; Walker, "Joseph Sr. and Lucy Mack Smith Family," 274–275; Anderson, Ancestry and Posterity of Joseph Smith, 75; McGavin, The Family of Joseph Smith, 95–108; Anderson, "What Were Joseph Smith's Sisters Like?"; Record of Seventies, bk. A, 20; and History of the Church, 3:43.

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  • Seixas, Joshua(4 June 1802–1874)

    Hebraist, textbook writer; probably born at New York City. Son of Gershom Seixas. Married Henrietta Raphael of Richmond, Virginia. Taught Hebrew at New York, Philadelphia, and Washington, and at Andover Theological Seminary and Harvard College in Massachusetts. His work, A Manual of Hebrew Grammar for the Use of Beginners, was published at Andover, 1833. Taught at Oberlin College, Ohio, 1835. Among his students was Lorenzo Snow, whose sister Eliza was a Latter-day Saint and lived in the JS household at Kirtland. (JS possibly first heard of Seixas from this source or from Daniel Peixotto, whose wife, Rachel, was Seixas's cousin.) Hired for six-week term of instruction at Western Reserve College at Hudson, Ohio, beginning in December and ending 23 January 1836. On 26 January 1836, arrived at Kirtland, where he taught Hebrew from 26 January to 29 March 1836. Taught a second course of Hebrew lessons at Kirtland, summer 1836. Founded the first choir of the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue at New York City, where he served many years as instructor of Hebrew. Died at New York City.

    See Snow, "Who Was Professor Joshua Seixas?"; "J. Seixas, Hebraist," and other papers, Nathan-Kraus Family Collection, Jacob Rader Marcus Center of the American Jewish Archives, Cincinnati, Ohio; Zucker, "Joseph Smith as a Student of Hebrew, " 44–47; Stern, First American Jewish Families, 264; Satterfield, "History of Adult Education in Kirtland," 123–124; Stern to Petersen, 9 May 1954; and Goldman, "Joshua/James Seixas"; Fletcher, History of Oberlin College, 1:368–370.

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  • Smith, Agnes Moulton Coolbrith (Coolbroth)(11 July 1811–26 December 1876)

    born at Scarborough Township, Cumberland Co., Maine. Daughter of Joseph Coolbrith and Mary Foss. LDS baptism by Orson Hyde and Samuel H. Smith and confirmed, 30 July 1832, at Boston. Moved to Kirtland, summer 1833; boarded in the Joseph Smith Sr. home. Married Don Carlos Smith, brother of JS, 30 July 1835, at Kirtland. Moved to Far West with members of the Smith family, summer 1838. Located at Millport, Daviess Co., near Adam-ondi-Ahman. Left Missouri, February 1839, and found refuge at Quincy, Adams Co., Illinois. Relocated first at Macomb, McDonough Co., Illinois, and then Nauvoo, late summer 1839. Don Carlos died, 7 August 1841, at Nauvoo. Performed proxy baptisms for the dead at Nauvoo, 1841. Received endowment in Nauvoo temple, 10 December 1845. Married William Pickett, who was not a Mormon, 1846, presumably at Nauvoo or St. Louis. Moved to St. Louis, 1846–1851. Listed on 1850 (1851) U.S. Census of Utah in Weber Co. Apparently continued on to California, 1851. Lived at Marysville, Los Angeles, San Bernardino, San Francisco, and Oakland. Daughter Josephine Donna (Ina Coolbrith) was named poet laureate of California, the first woman poet laureate in the United States, 1915. Died at Oakland, Alameda Co., California.

    See International Genealogical Index; "Early Church Families," Utah Genealogical Magazine 26 (July 1935): 105–106; Rhodehamel and Wood, Ina Coolbrith, 402–404; Black and Black, Annotated Record of Baptisms for the Dead, 5:3327; 1850 U.S. Census, Weber Co., Utah Territory; and Backman, Profile, 62.

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  • Smith, Alvin(11 February 1798–19 November 1823)

    farmer, carpenter; born at Tunbridge, Orange Co., Vermont. Son of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack. Brother of JS. Moved from Norwich Township, Windsor Co., Vermont, to Palmyra, Ontario Co., New York, 1816. Played prominent role in family economy, working to pay for the 99.5 acre Manchester Township farm, jointly articled for with his father, 1820. Supervised construction of Smiths' Manchester frame home. Ardent supporter of young JS's heavenly manifestations. As expressed by Mother Lucy, "Alvin was never so happy as when he was contemplating the final success of his brother in obtaining the record.” JS referred to him as "the noblest of my father's family.” Experienced severe stomach cramps, perhaps caused by appendicitis, 15 November 1823. His situation was apparently complicated by of overdose of calomel administered by local physician named Greenwood. Four additional local physicians were unable to relieve the malady. Died in the Smith log home on Stafford Road, Palmyra Township, Wayne Co., New York. Considered "unchurched” at time of his death although his mother and three siblings were members of Western Presbyterian Church of Palmyra. Reverend Benjamin Stockton of Western Presbyterian Church of Palmyra preached his funeral sermon. Buried in General John Swift Memorial Cemetery on Church Street, Palmyra. JS reported seeing him in vision at Kirtland temple, 21 January 1836.

    See Anderson, "Alvin Smith Story"; Anderson, Lucy's Book, 29, 170, 171, 349, 355; History of the Church, 2:378–381; and Porter, "Origins of the Church," 40, 71–77.

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  • Smith, Don Carlos(25 March 1816–7 August 1841)

    farmer, printer; born at Norwich, Windsor Co., Vermont. Son of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack. Married Agnes Moulton Coolbrith, 30 July 1835, at Kirtland. LDS baptism by David Whitmer, ca. 9 June 1829, at Seneca Lake, Seneca Co., New York. Accompanied his father, Joseph Smith Sr., on mission to Asael Smith Sr. family in St. Lawrence Co., New York, August 1830. Migrated from Seneca Falls Township, Seneca Co., to Kirtland, with the Lucy Mack Smith company of Fayette branch Latter-day Saints, May 1831. Employed by Kirtland printing shop under Oliver Cowdery, fall 1833. Received patriarchal blessing from father, 15 September 1835, at Kirtland. President of Kirtland high priests quorum, 15 January 1836. Assumed editorial management of expiring Messenger and Advocate and first issues of Elders' Journal published first in Kirtland under editorship of JS with Thomas Marsh as publisher, October–December 1837. Left Ohio for Far West, in company with his father's family, May 1838. Soon located at Millport, Daviess Co., Missouri. Mission to Kentucky and Tennessee, 1838. Covenanted at Far West to assist the Latter-day Saints in their removal from Missouri, 29 January 1839. Expelled from Far West, February 1839; moved to Quincy, Adams Co., Illinois. Lived at Macomb, McDonough Co., Illinois, and then Nauvoo, 1839. Editor and publisher of Times and Seasons, 1839–1841, at Nauvoo. Member of Nauvoo city council, 1841. Performed proxy baptism for president George Washington at Nauvoo, 1841. Brigadier general in Nauvoo Legion, 1841. Member of Nauvoo Fourth Ward. Died apparently of pneumonia at Nauvoo. Buried in the Smith Family Cemetery, Nauvoo. Daughter Josephine Donna (Ina Coolbrith) was honored as poet laureate of California, 1915.

    See Rhodehamel and Wood, Ina Coolbrith; Cook, Revelations, 274–275; History of the Church, 3:43, 4:393–394; 398–399; Anderson, "Joseph Smith's Brothers," 30; Crawley, Descriptive Bibliography, 1:72; Backman, Profile, 62, 119; Black and Black, Annotated Record of Baptisms for the Dead, 5:3352; Porter, "Origins of the Church," 314–315; and Far West Committee Minutes, January–April 1839.

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  • Smith, Emma Hale(10 July 1804–30 April 1879)

    born at Harmony, Susquehanna Co., Pennsylvania. Daughter of Isaac Hale and Elizabeth Lewis. Member of Methodist Church at Harmony. Married to JS by Zachariah Tarble, 18 January 1827, at South Bainbridge, Chenango Co., New York. LDS baptism by Oliver Cowdery, 28 June 1830, near the Joseph Knight Sr. farm, Colesville Township, Broome Co., New York. Resided at Joseph Smith Sr. home at Manchester Township, Ontario Co., New York, 1827. Accompanied JS to Hill Cumorah when he first retrieved the golden plates, 22 September 1827. Assisted her husband as one of his scribes during translation of the Book of Mormon at Harmony, 1828, and joined him during completion of the translation at Peter Whitmer Sr. farm, Fayette, Seneca Co., New York, June 1829. An 1830 Harmony revelation (D&C 25) directed her to select hymns for a church hymnal. Again lived at the Whitmer farm, September 1830 to January 1831. Accompanied JS in migration from New York to Kirtland, January–February 1831. Moved to John Johnson home at Hiram Township, Portage Co., Ohio, while JS worked on translation of Bible, 1831–1832. At Kirtland, published A Collection of Sacred Hymns, for The Church of the Latter Day Saints, 1835. Fled Ohio persecution for Far West, January–March 1838. Exiled from Missouri in February 1839; located her family at home of Judge John and Sarah M. Kinsley Cleveland near Quincy, Adams Co., Illinois. Moved into JS homestead (formerly Hugh White's) at Commerce (later Nauvoo), Hancock Co., Illinois, 10 May 1839. Appointed president of Female Relief Society at Nauvoo, 17 March 1842. Participated in plural marriage at Nauvoo. Joseph killed at Carthage Jail, 27 June 1844. Fearing persecution following Battle of Nauvoo, fled with her family to Fulton, Fulton Co., Illinois, September 1846–February 1847. Married Lewis C. Bidamon, 23 December 1847, at Nauvoo. Died in Nauvoo House. Buried in Smith Family Cemetery, Nauvoo.

    See Cook, Revelations, 37; Cook, Nauvoo Marriages Proxy Sealings, 12n3; Newell and Avery, Mormon Enigma; Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:692–693; Youngreen, Reflections of Emma; Anderson, Joseph Smith and Emma Hale; Anderson, Lucy's Book; and Walker, "Katherine Smith Salisbury's Recollections."

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  • Smith, George Albert(26 June 1817–1 September 1875)

    farmer; born at Potsdam, St. Lawrence Co., New York. Son of John Smith and Clarissa Lyman. Cousin of JS. Associated with the First Congregational Church at Potsdam, New York. LDS baptism by Joseph H. Wakefield and confirmed by Solomon Humphrey, 10 September 1832, at Potsdam. Moved to Kirtland with parents, 1833. With Harvey Stanley, hauled first two loads of rock from Stanard's quarry for Kirtland temple. Participant in march of Zion's Camp, 1834. Ordained to First Quorum of the Seventy, 1 March 1835. Missions to eastern states with Lyman Smith, 1835, and to Ohio with cousin Charles H. Smith, 1836. Arrived at Far West, from Kirtland, 16 June 1838, and soon located at Adam-ondi-Ahman. Covenanted at Far West to assist the Latter-day Saints in their removal from Missouri, 29 January 1839. In exodus from Missouri, located north of Quincy, Adams Co., Illinois. With Brigham Young and others, returned to Far West and was ordained an apostle by Heber Kimball at the temple site, 26 April 1839. Mission to England, 1839–1841. Married Bathsheba W. Bigler by Don Carlos Smith, 25 July 1841, at Nauvoo. Lived at Lee Co., Iowa, 1841. Member of Nauvoo Legion. Participated in plural marriage at Nauvoo. In exodus from Nauvoo, February 1846. Member of Brigham Young pioneer company, 1847. Rebaptized by Brigham Young, 6 August 1847. Directed early settlement of southern Utah. Appointed church historian and recorder, 1854. Member of Utah territorial supreme court, 1855. First counselor to Brigham Young in church presidency, 1868. Dedicated and consecrated Palestine, 1872–1873. Died at Salt Lake City.

    See Record of Seventies, bk. A, 6; "Sketch of the Auto-biography of George Albert Smith," Deseret Weekly, 18 August 1858, [105]; Record of Baptisms and Re-Baptisms; Pusey, Builders of the Kingdom; Cook, Revelations, 275–276; Cook, Nauvoo Marriages Proxy Sealings, 149n4; Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:37–42; Tullidge, Life of Brigham Young, supplement pp. 7–13; History of the Church, 1:285; Dunford, "Contributions of George A. Smith”; Far West Committee Minutes, January–April 1839; and "Sketch of the Auto-biography of George Albert Smith," Millennial Star, 1 July 1865, 406–408; 8 July 1865, 423–425; 15 July 1865, 438–441.

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  • Smith, Hyrum(11 February 1800–27 June 1844)

    farmer, cooper; born at Tunbridge, Orange Co., Vermont. Son of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack. Brother of JS. Resided at Randolph, Vermont, 1802, then moved back to Tunbridge, 1803. The family briefly lived at Royalton, Vermont, and Sharon, Vermont. Other moves followed, including to West Lebanon, New Hampshire, 1811. Apparently in 1811, began attending the academy or Moor's School, housed on Dartmouth College campus, Hanover, New Hampshire. In spite of a bout with typhoid fever, apparently in 1812, seems to have returned to schooling in 1813. Listed as a "charity scholar” at the academy, 1814. Family lived at Norwich, Vermont, until 1816, when protracted cold season caused them to move to Palmyra, Ontario Co., New York. Member of Western Presbyterian church of Palmyra, 1820. Lived with family at Manchester, Ontario Co., 1820–1826. Married first Jerusha Barden, 2 November 1826, at Manchester. LDS baptism by JS, June 1829, at Seneca Lake, Seneca Co., New York. One of the Eight Witnesses to the Book of Mormon, 1829. Assisted in arrangements for publication of the Book of Mormon, Palmyra, 1829–1830. Presided over Colesville branch, 1830–1831. Migrated to Kirtland, 1831. Member of committee to supervise construction of Kirtland temple, 1833–1836. Participant in march of Zion's Camp, 1834. Sustained as assistant counselor to the First Presidency, 3 September 1837. Jerusha died, 13 October 1837; married second Mary Fielding, 24 December 1837, at Kirtland. Appointed second counselor in the First Presidency, 7 November 1837. Imprisoned at Liberty, Missouri, with his brother JS, 1838–1839. While en route from trial in Gallatin, Daviess Co., Missouri, to change of venue at Columbia, Boone Co., Missouri, the prisoners escaped. Arrived at Quincy, Adams Co., Illinois, from captivity in Missouri, 22 April 1839. On 1 July 1843, gave detailed testimony at Nauvoo concerning treatment received by himself and the Latter-day Saints in Missouri. In September 1840, his father, patriarch Joseph Smith Sr., announced in the last blessing he gave Hyrum, "I now seal upon your head the patriarchal power, and you shall bless the people.” Began to give patriarchal blessings even before the death of his father and continued to do so in the weeks and months afterward before the official announcement of his ordination as patriarch to the church and assistant president on 19 January 1841. Member of Nauvoo city council. Participated in plural marriage at Nauvoo. Charged in the destruction of the Nauvoo Expositor, 1844. Killed in the attack that also took his brother JS's life at Carthage Jail, Hancock Co., Illinois.

    See O'Driscoll, Hyrum Smith; Cook, Revelations, 19–20; Cook, Nauvoo Marriages Proxy Sealings, 3n1; Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:52–53; Walker, "Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack Smith Family," 258–259; Anderson, "Joseph Smith's Brothers"; D&C 124:91–96; 135; and Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 619–639.

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  • Smith, John(16 July 1781–23 May 1854)

    farmer; born at Derryfield (now Manchester), Rockingham Co., New Hampshire. Son of Asael Smith and Mary Duty. Member of First Congregational Church. Appointed overseer of highways, Potsdam, St. Lawrence Co., New York, 3 March 1810. Married Clarissa Lyman, 11 September 1815. Baptized by Solomon Humphrey, 9 January 1832, at Potsdam. Confirmed and ordained an elder by Joseph Wakefield, 9 January 1832. Moved to Kirtland, 1833. Ordained a high priest by Lyman Wight, 3 June 1833. President of Kirtland high council. Served mission to eastern states with Joseph Smith Sr., 1836. Appointed assistant counselor in the First Presidency, 1837; member of Kirtland stake presidency, 1838. Left Kirtland for Far West, 5 April 1838. Appointed president of Adam-ondi-Ahman stake, 28 June 1838. Expelled from Missouri; arrived in Illinois on 28 February 1839. Moved to Commerce (later Nauvoo), Hancock Co., Illinois, June 1839. Appointed president of Lee Co., Iowa, stake, 5 October 1839. Appointed to preside at Macedonia, Hancock Co., 1843–1844. Ordained a stake patriarch, 10 January 1844. Appointed Nauvoo stake president, 7 October 1844. Joined westward exodus of the Latter-day Saints into Iowa Territory, 9 February 1846. Arrived in Salt Lake Valley, 23 September 1847. Presided over Salt Lake Stake until 1 January 1849. Ordained patriarch to the church, 1 January 1849. Died at Salt Lake City.

    See Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:182–183; Cook, Revelations, 208; Cook, Nauvoo Marriages Proxy Sealings, 21n3; Garrard, "The Asael Smith Family", 24–26; Anderson, Joseph Smith's New England Heritage, 144–147, 183–185; Bates and Smith, Lost Legacy, chap. 5; Far West Committee Minutes, January–April 1839; "Journal History," 9 January 1832; "Sketch of the Auto-biography of George Albert Smith," Millennial Star, 1 July 1865, 406–408; 8 July 1865, 423–425; 15 July 1865, 438–441; Black, Who's Who in the D&C, 284; and Hilton, Story of Salt Lake Stake, 37.

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  • Smith, Joseph, Sr.(12 July 1771–14 September 1840)

    cooper, farmer, schoolteacher, merchant; born at Topsfield, Essex Co., Massachusetts. Son of Asael Smith Sr. and Mary Duty. Father of JS. Nominal member of Congregationalist church at Topsfield. Farmed homestead at Tunbridge, Orange Co., Vermont, 1791. Married Lucy Mack, 24 January 1796, at Tunbridge. Joined the Universalist Society at Tunbridge, 1797. Entered mercantile business at Randolph, Vermont, ca. 1802, and lost all in a ginseng root investment. Lived at Sharon Township, Windsor Co., Vermont, 1805, when JS was born. Moved to West Lebanon, Lebanon Township, Grafton Co., New Hampshire, 1811. Resided at Norwich Township, Windsor Co., New York, ca. 1813. After three crop failures, family moved to Palmyra, Ontario Co., New York, 1816. Was "unchurched” at the time of the restoration, 1820. One of the Eight Witnesses to the Book of Mormon, 1829. LDS baptism by Oliver Cowdery, 6 April 1830, at Fayette, Seneca Co., New York. Mission to the family of his father in St. Lawrence Co., New York, August 1830. Moved to Kirtland with son, Hyrum Smith, March 1831. Ordained a high priest, 3 June 1831. Ordained patriarch to the church, 6 December 1834. Member of Kirtland high council, 1834. Labored on Kirtland temple. Mission to eastern states with his brother John Smith, 1836. Appointed assistant counselor to the First Presidency, 1837. Moved to Far West, summer 1838. Fled from Far West to Quincy, Adams Co., Illinois, February 1839. Located at Commerce (later Nauvoo), Hancock Co., Illinois, May 1839. Died at Nauvoo, shortly after having given blessings to family members. Buried in Smith Family Cemetery, Nauvoo.

    See O'Driscoll, Hyrum Smith, 9–11, 19, 37, 43; Cook, Revelations, 11; Anderson, Lucy's Book, 871–872; McConkie, Father of the Prophet; Walker, "Joseph Sr. and Lucy Mack Smith Family," 249; Bitton, Diaries and Autobiographies, 322; and History of the Church, 2:446.

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  • Smith, Lucy Mack(8 July 1775–14 May 1856)

    born at Gilsum, Cheshire Co., New Hampshire. Daughter of Solomon Mack and Lydia Gates. Married to Joseph Smith Sr. by Seth Austin, 24 January 1796, at Tunbridge, Orange Co., Vermont. Lived at Sharon, Windsor Co., Vermont, when she gave birth to JS, 23 December 1805. Migrated to Palmyra, Ontario Co., New York, from Norwich, Windsor Co., Vermont, winter of 1816-1817. Member of Western Presbyterian Church of Palmyra, 1820. Lived at Manchester, Ontario Co., New York, ca. 1825–1830. LDS baptism, April 1830. Lived at The Kingdom, an unincorporated settlement at Seneca Falls, Seneca Co., New York, 1830–1831. Led company of approximately eighty Fayette branch members from Seneca Co. to Kirtland, May 1831. Migrated to Far West, summer 1838. Fled to Quincy, Adams Co., Illinois, during the exodus from Missouri, February 1839. Died at Nauvoo. Her narrative history of the Smith family, published as Biographical Sketches of Joseph Smith (1853) has been an invaluable resource for the study of JS and the early church.

    See Lucy Mack Smith, Biographical Sketches; Anderson, Joseph Smith's New England Heritage; Anderson, Lucy's Book; Bushman, Joseph Smith and the Beginnings; Arrington, Madsen, and Jones, Mothers of the Prophets, chap. 1; Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:690–692; Walker, "Joseph Sr. and Lucy Mack Smith Family," 252; Porter, "Origins of the Church," 268–272, 311–322; and O'Driscoll, Hyrum Smith, 19, 26, 32–33.

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  • Smith, Samuel Harrison(13 March 1808–30 July 1844)

    farmer; born at Tunbridge, Orange Co., Vermont. Son of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack. Younger brother of JS. Moved from Norwich, Windsor Co., Vermont, to Palmyra, Ontario Co., New York, 1816. Member of Western Presbyterian Church of Palmyra, 1820. LDS baptism by Oliver Cowdery, 25 May 1829, in the Susquehanna River at Harmony, Pennsylvania. One of the Eight Witnesses to the Book of Mormon, June 1829. Among the six original members of the church, 6 April 1830. Mission to Ontario, Monroe, and Livingston counties, New York, 1830. Ordained an elder, 9 June 1830, at Fayette, Seneca Co., New York. Migrated from New York to Kirtland with Orson Pratt, arriving February 1831. Ordained a high priest by Lyman Wight, 3 June 1831. Mission to Missouri with Reynolds Cahoon, 1831. Mission with Orson Hyde to eastern states, 1832. Member of first Kirtland high council, 1834. Received special father's blessing from Joseph Smith Sr. at Kirtland, 19 February 1834. Married Mary Bailey, 13 August 1834, at Kirtland. Committee member and general agent for the Literary Firm in Kirtland, 1835. Moved to Far West, where he resided briefly before going to Marrowbone in Daviess Co., 1838. Participated in Battle of Crooked River, Ray Co., Missouri, 25 October 1838. Fled north from Far West into Iowa and then east to Illinois to escape pursuit of armed Missouri state militiamen. Among first to seek refuge at Quincy, Adams Co., Illinois, 1838. Joined by family at Quincy, ca. January–February 1839. Hired to farm for George Miller near Macomb, McDonough Co., Illinois, March 1839. Swore out bill of damages against state of Missouri, 15 May 1839, at Adams Co. Appointed a bishop at Nauvoo, 1841. Nauvoo city alderman and member of Nauvoo Legion, 1841. Married Levira Clark, 1841. Moved to tavern of William Smith at Plymouth, Illinois, 1842. Reached Carthage just after death of his brothers, 27 June 1844. Accompanied bodies of the martyrs to Nauvoo. Taken sick with bilious fever at Nauvoo, where he died. Buried in Smith Family Cemetery, Nauvoo.

    See Jarman, "Samuel Harrison Smith"; Cook, Revelations, 34; Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:278–282; Anderson, Investigating the Book of Mormon Witnesses, 140–141; Anderson, "Joseph Smith's Brothers," 31; Kirtland Minute Book, 19 February 1834, 37; Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 350–351; Anderson, Lucy's Book; and O'Driscoll, Hyrum Smith, 19, 32–33.

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  • Smith, William B.(13 March 1811–13 November 1893)

    farmer, newspaper editor; born at Royalton, Windsor Co., Vermont. Son of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack. Brother of JS. Moved from Norwich, Vermont, to Palmyra, Ontario Co., New York, 1816. Resided at Palmyra/Manchester townships, 1820. Raised in predominately Presbyterian household. LDS baptism by David Whitmer, 9 June 1830, at Seneca Lake, Seneca Co., New York. Resided with parents at The Kingdom, an unincorporated settlement in Seneca Falls Township, Seneca Co., October 1830. Moved with family and the Fayette branch to Kirtland, May 1831. Married first Caroline Amanda Grant, 1833, at Kirtland. Participant in march of Zion's Camp, 1834. Appointed to Quorum of the Twelve, 15 February 1835. Left Kirtland for Far West with father's family, May 1838. Disfellowshipped 4 May 1839, then left Missouri and settled at Plymouth, Illinois, 1839, where he kept a tavern. Restored to fellowship. Elected to Nauvoo city council, 1842. Represented Hancock Co. in Illinois State House of Representatives, 1842–1843. Editor of Nauvoo newspaper The Wasp, 1842. Participated in plural marriage at Nauvoo. On mission to the East when his brothers were killed at Carthage Jail, 1844. Ordained presiding patriarch, 24 May 1845. Married second Mary Jane Rollins, 22 June 1845, at Hancock Co. Excommunicated for apostasy, 12 October 1845. Sustained James J. Strang as successor to JS, 1 March 1846. Ordained Strangite patriarch, 11 June 1846, at Voree, Wisconsin. Married third Roxey Ann Grant, 19 May 1846, at Knox Co., Illinois. Excommunicated from Strangite movement, 8 October 1847. Planned for the erection of a temple. Affiliated briefly with Lyman Wight, 1850–1851. Attempted to establish a temple at Palestine Grove near what is known as Amboy, Illinois, 1850–1851. Ordained a member of Quorum of the Seventy in reorganized church, 1853. Initiated a new movement with Martin Harris and Chilton Daniels, 1 November 1855. Married fourth Eliza E. Sanburne, 12 November 1857, at Lake Co., Ohio. Resided at Elkader, Clayton Co., Iowa, 1858. Enlisted in U.S. Army during Civil War and apparently adopted the middle initial "B" to distinguish himself at this time. Mustered into service, 25 February 1864, at Rock Island, Rock Island Co., Illinois, and assigned as a private to Company G, 126th Illinois Infantry. Spent active duty time in Arkansas and mustered out, 12 July 1865, at Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Married fifth Rosa Jewitt Surprise, 21 December 1889, at Clinton, Clinton Co., Iowa. In 1890, moved to Osterdock, Clayton Co., Iowa, where he died. Buried in Bethel Cemetery, two miles south of Osterdock.

    See Smith, William Smith on Mormonism; Rudd, "William Smith"; Cook, Revelations, 276–277; Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:86–87; Anderson, "Joseph Smith's Brothers," 32–33; Walker, "Joseph Sr. and Lucy Mack Smith Family," 270–271; Young, Strangite Mormons; Wilcox, Regathering of the Scattered Saints, 76–79; William B. Smith, Declaration for Invalid Pension, Clayton County, Iowa, 8 August 1865; Iowa G.A.R., Supplement to the Official Records, 656, 703–704; Porter, "Origins of the Church," 31–32, 269–270, 314–315; Ancestral File; Lucy Mack Smith, History of Joseph Smith, 342; Cook, Nauvoo Deaths and Marriages, 99; Knox Co., Illinois, Marriage Certificates, 1846¬–1851; Lake Co., Ohio, Marriage Records, 1840–1955, C:170; and Clinton Co., Iowa, Marriage Records, 1840–1933, 1 (1880–1890): 219.

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  • Whitmer, David(7 January 1805–25 January 1888)

    born near Harrisburg, Dauphin Co., Pennsylvania. Son of Peter Whitmer Sr. and Mary Musselman. Married Julia Ann Jolly, 9 January 1831, at Seneca Co., New York. Arranged for completion of translation of the Book of Mormon in his father's home, Fayette Township, Seneca Co., June 1829. LDS baptism by JS for remission of sins, June 1829, at Seneca Lake, Seneca Co. One of the Three Witnesses to the Book of Mormon, June 1829. Among the six original members of the church, 6 April 1830. Migrated from Fayette, Seneca Co., to Kirtland, 1831. Ordained a high priest, 25 October 1831, at Orange, Cuyahoga Co., conference. Mission to Jackson Co., Missouri, with Harvey Whitlock, 1831. Located in Whitmer branch at Kaw Township, 1831. Driven from the county by mob, November 1833, locating at Clay Co. Appointed president of the church in Missouri, 3 July 1834. Received anointing in Kirtland temple, 21 January 1836. Led the removal of the Latter-day Saints from Clay Co. to Caldwell Co., Missouri, 1836. Rejected as president in Missouri for infractions against the church; excommunicated, 13 April 1838, at Far West. Moved to Richmond, Ray Co., Missouri, where he operated a livery stable. Visited by William McLellin, September 1847, from Kirtland, where the Church of Christ had been reconstituted. Initially accepted ordination under hands of McLellin to preside over organization but later rejected it. Elected mayor of Richmond, 1867–1868. Formed a church with emphasis on a return to "original Mormonism," 1875–1876. Later set forth his claims in a publication, "An Address to All Believers in Christ, by a Witness to the Divine Authenticity of the Book of Mormon," 1887. The organization was continued by adherents until 1896. Faithfully kept Oliver Cowdery's "printer's manuscript" of the Book of Mormon. Died at Richmond, Ray Co., Missouri. Buried in Richmond city cemetery (Sunny Slope Cemetery).

    See Cook, Revelations, 24–25; Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:263–271; Anderson, Investigating the Book of Mormon Witnesses, chap. 5–6; Cook, David Whitmer Interviews; Porter, "Odyssey of William E. McLellin," 341–346, 353–354; and Smith, "Biography of David Whitmer," 301.

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  • Whitmer, John(27 August 1802–11 July 1878)

    farmer, stock raiser; born at Yorktown Township, York Co., Pennsylvania. Son of Peter Whitmer Sr. and Mary Musselman. Married to Sarah Maria Jackson by William W. Phelps, 10 February 1833, at Kaw Township, Jackson Co., Missouri. Member of Jerusalem Church Zion's Church congregation of German Reformed Church, Fayette Township, Seneca Co., New York. LDS baptism for remission of sins by Oliver Cowdery, June 1829, at Seneca Lake. Acted as a scribe during translation of the Book of Mormon at the Whitmer home, June 1829. One of the Eight Witnesses to the Book of Mormon, June 1829. Ordained an elder, 9 June 1830. Copied revelations as scribe to JS, July 1830. Appointed church historian, 1831. Wrote a church history covering the years 1831–1838. Sent by JS to Kirtland to help administer the church there, January 1831. Officially appointed church historian, 8 March 1831. Ordained a high priest, 3 June 1831, at Kirtland. With Oliver Cowdery, left Kirtland to take the manuscript of the Book of Commandments to Missouri for publication, November 1831. Member of Whitmer branch at Kaw Township, Jackson Co., Missouri. Forced to remove from Jackson Co. to Clay Co., Missouri, November 1833. Appointed counselor to his brother, David, in Missouri church presidency, 3 July 1834. Editor of Messenger and Advocate, Kirtland, 1835–1836. Resided at Clay Co., 1836. With William W. Phelps, selected future site of Far West in what would become Caldwell Co., Missouri; town site entered, 8 August 1836. Helped establish Latter-day Saints at Far West. Objections raised over personal commissions taken for sale of lands purchased with church funds; congregation satisfied with explanations. Sold property in Jackson Co. though admonished not to do so. Excommunicated, 10 March 1838, at Far West. Left Far West for Richmond, Ray Co., Missouri, June 1838. Returned to Far West after departure of Latter-day Saints. In September 1847, met with his brother David Whitmer and William McLellin at Far West to reconstitute the Church of Christ under the presidency of David Whitmer. John served as a counselor. David Whitmer soon withdrew support, however, and ordinations of September 1847 were short lived. Died at Far West and buried in the cemetery at Kingston, Caldwell Co.

    See McKiernan and Launius, Early Latter Day Saint History, 9–23; Westergren, From Historian to Dissident; Jessee, "Writing of Joseph Smith's History," 442–443, 463; Caldwell County, Missouri, 2:195–196; Shipps and Welch, Journals of William E. McLellin, 342–346; Cook, Revelations, 25–26; and Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:251–252.

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  • Whitney, Newel Kimball(5 February 1795–23 September 1850)

    trader, merchant; born at Marlborough, Windham Co., Vermont. Son of Samuel Whitney and Susanna Kimball. Engaged as merchant at Plattsburg, New York, 1814. Trading with settlers and Indians on Green Bay (later Wisconsin). Mercantile clerk for Algernon Sidney Gilbert at Painesville, Geauga Co., Ohio, ca. 1817. Became Gilbert's partner at Kirtland. Married Elizabeth Ann Smith, 1822. Unitarian and then member of the Reformed Baptist (later Disciples of Christ or Cambellite) faith before LDS baptism by missionaries to unorganized Indian territory under Oliver Cowdery, November 1830. Appointed bishop at Kirtland, 1831. Traveled with JS to Missouri and then New York City, Albany, and Boston, 1832. Labored to establish law of consecration among the Latter-day Saints. Participated in dedication of Kirtland temple, March 1836. En route to Missouri, fall 1838, when extreme difficulties in that state were confirmed at St. Louis. Located his family temporarily at Carrollton, Greene Co., Illinois, and returned to Kirtland to conduct business. Moved his family from Carrollton to Quincy, Adams Co., Illinois, and then Commerce (later Nauvoo), Hancock Co., Illinois. Appointed bishop of Middle Ward at Commerce, October 1839. Served as alderman for Nauvoo, 1841. Received endowment, 4 May 1842. Member of Council of Fifty, 1844. Participated in plural marriage. Joined exodus of the Latter-day Saints into Iowa and Winter Quarters, 1846. Sustained as presiding bishop of the church at Kanesville, Pottawattamie Co., Iowa, 6 April 1847. Migrated to Salt Lake Valley, October 1848. Bishop of Salt Lake City Eighteenth Ward, 1849. Died at Salt Lake City. Buried in Kimball-Whitney Cemetery, Salt Lake City.

    See Whitney, "Newel K. Whitney;" Cook, Revelations, 102–103; Cook, Nauvoo Marriages Proxy Sealings, 36n1; and Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:222–227.

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  • Wight, Lyman(9 May 1796–31 March 1858)

    farmer; born at Fairfield, Herkimer Co., New York. Son of Levi Wight Jr. and Sarah Corbin. Married Harriet Benton, 5 January 1823, at Henrietta, Monroe Co., New York. Baptized into the Reformed Baptist (later Disciples of Christ or Campbellite) faith by Sidney Rigdon in Warrensville, Ohio, area, May 1829. Moved to Isaac Morley homestead at Kirtland and joined with other Reformed Baptist families having all things in common, February 1830. Lived at Mayfield, Ohio, when LDS baptism in Chagrin River, 14 November 1830, and confirmed by Oliver Cowdery at Kirtland, 18 November 1830. Ordained an elder by Oliver Cowdery, 20 November 1830. Ordained a high priest by JS, 3 June 1831. Directed by JS to ordain JS and Sidney Rigdon high priests, 3 June 1831. Mission to Jackson Co. Missouri, via Detroit and Pontiac, Michigan, June–August 1831. Joined by family at Jackson Co., September 1831, locating at Prairie branch, where he presided over that settlement. Moved to and presided over Big Blue settlement. Driven from Jackson Co. into Clay Co., Missouri, November 1833. As messenger from Missouri to Kirtland, directed by JS to recruit volunteers for march of Zion's Camp, 1834. Member of Clay Co. high council, 1834. Moved to what became Caldwell Co. (created from Ray Co.), Missouri, 1836. Elected colonel at organization of Caldwell Co. militia, August 1837. Resided at Adam-ondi-Ahman, Daviess Co., Missouri, 1837–1838. Imprisoned with JS at Richmond, Ray Co.; Liberty, Clay Co.; and Gallatin, Daviess Co., 1838–1839. Escaped Missouri imprisonment during change of venue to Columbia, Boone Co., and fled to Quincy, Adams Co., Illinois, April 1839. On 1 July 1843, swore lengthy testimony at Nauvoo concerning his own treatment and that of the Latter-day Saints in Missouri. Counselor in Zarahemla stake presidency, Lee Co., Iowa, October 1839. Ordained member of Quorum of the Twelve, 8 April 1841, at Nauvoo. Elected to Nauvoo city council, 1842. Participated in practice of plural marriage. Leader in development of Mormon settlements in the Wisconsin Pineries on the Black River, Wisconsin Territory, 1843–1844. Mission to eastern states to campaign for JS as candidate for U.S. president, 1844. Returned to Black River, Wisconsin, 1844–1845. On 28 March 1845, departed Wisconsin as leader of company of some 150 Latter-day Saints that arrived in Texas in November 1845. Wintered at deserted Fort Johnson in area known as Georgetown (later Fink), Williamson Co., Texas. In summer 1846, after a succession of moves established a colony at Zodiac, Gillespie Co., Texas, four miles south of Fredericksburg, Gillespie Co., on Pedernales River. Had been counseled by church leaders in Nauvoo not to proceed to Texas. Rejected entreaties from Quorum of the Twelve; excommunicated, 3 December 1848. Elected chief justice of Gillespie Co., 1850. Died at Dexter, Medina Co., Texas; buried at Zodiac.

    See Cook, Revelations, 82–83; Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:93–96; Wight, Wild Ram of the Mountain; Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 652–664; Romig, Early Jackson County, 14, 34; Rowley, "Mormon Experience in the Wisconsin Pineries," 127, 139–140; 1850 U.S. Census, Zodiac, Gillespie Co., Texas; Black, Who's Who in the D&C, 342–345; and Wightman, "Life and Contributions of Lyman Wight."

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  • Williams, Frederick Granger(28 October 1787–10 October 1842)

    farmer, pilot, teacher, physician, justice of the peace; born at Suffield, Hartford Co., Connecticut. Son of William Wheeler Williams and Ruth Granger. Moved to Cleveland with parents, 1798. Pilot in Great Lakes Region for Commodore Matthew Perry, 1813. Practiced Thomsonian botanical system of medicine as a physician. Lived at Warrensville, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, 1815. Married Rebecca Swain, December 1815, at Wyondotte, Wayne Co., Michigan. Worshipped with Sidney Rigdon's Campbellite congregation. Taxed in Chardon, Geauga Co., 1828–1829, and paid property taxes in Kirtland, 1830. LDS baptism, confirmed, and ordained an elder, November 1830, at Kirtland by Mormon missionaries under the leadership of Oliver Cowdery who were en route to Missouri and unorganized Indian territory. Accompanied Cowdery to Missouri frontier on ten-month mission. Present at dedication of Independence temple site by JS, 1831. Appointed clerk and scribe to JS, 20 July 1832, working closely with him on his first history, translation of the Bible, revelations, and other documents. Counselor in the First Presidency, replacing Jesse Gause, 1833. Consecrated by deed to JS about 142 prime acres embracing the core of the Kirtland stake, Kirtland temple, and church printing house properties, 1834. Participated in march of Zion's Camp, 1834. Editor of Northern Times and member of the publications committee that printed the Doctrine and Covenants and Emma Smith's Collection of Sacred Hymns under firm of F. G. Williams & Co., 1835. Helped organize and was a trustee of the School of the Prophets. Elected justice of the peace, 1837. Officer in Kirtland Safety Society, 1837. A conference of the church did not sustain his position in the First Presidency in November 1837; Hyrum Smith appointed in his place. Moved with Latter-day Saints to Far West, 1838. Excommunicated, 17 March 1839, at Quincy, Adams Co., Illinois. Swore affidavit at Quincy concerning loss of land "to considerable amount" under Lilburn Boggs's exterminating order, 17 March 1840. Restored to fellowship at Nauvoo conference, 8 April 1840. Died at Quincy. Reported to have been buried at the site of what is now Washington Park in Quincy. In 1849, Rebecca migrated to Salt Lake City, where she married Heber Kimball.

    See Frederick G. Williams III to Larry C. Porter, Provo, Utah, 17 February 2004; Williams, "Frederick Granger Williams"; Frederick G. Williams III, "The Prophet's Right-Hand Man," Church News, 31 October 1987, 7; Jessee, "Writing of Joseph Smith's History," 444, 463; Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:51–152; Cook, Revelations, 104–105; Williams, Meet Dr. Frederick Granger Williams; Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 376–377; and "Records of Early Church Families," Utah Genealogical and Historical Magazine 28 (1937): 36–37.

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  • Photo of Wilford Woodruff
    Woodruff, Wilford(1 March 1807–2 September 1898)

    farmer, miller; born at Farmington, Hartford Co., Connecticut. Son of Aphek Woodruff and Beulah Thompson. LDS baptism by Zera Pulsipher, 31 December 1833, near Richland, Oswego Co., New York. Ordained a teacher, 25 January 1834, at Richland. Participated in march of Zion's Camp, 1834. Mission to southern Missouri, northern Arkansas, and western Tennessee, 1834–1836. Appointed a member of Second Quorum of the Seventy, 1836; confirmed member of First Quorum of the Seventy, January 1837. Married to Phoebe Carter by Frederick G. Williams, 13 April 1837, at Kirtland. Missions to New England and the Fox Islands off coast of Maine, 1837–1838. Ordained an apostle by Brigham Young, 26 April 1839, on temple site at Far West. Mission to Great Britain, 1839–1841. Mission to eastern states and Canada to raise funds for building Nauvoo temple, 1843. Mission to eastern states to campaign for JS as candidate for U.S. president, 1844. Word of death of JS and Hyrum Smith reached him in Portland, Maine. Participated in plural marriage at Nauvoo. Member of Brigham Young pioneer company, 1847. Returned to Winter Quarters, 1847. Appointed to mission to eastern states and Canada, 1848–1850. Again migrated to Utah, 1850. Member of Utah territorial legislature. Appointed assistant church historian, 7 April 1856. President of Quorum of the Twelve, 1880. Sustained as church historian and general church recorder, 1883. First president of St. George temple. President of the church, 7 April 1889–2 September 1898. Kept diary most of his life, writing some seven thousand pages during a sixty-two-year period, 1835–1898. Died at the home of his friend, Isaac Trumbo, at San Francisco, San Francisco Co., California.

    See Jessee, "Writing of Joseph Smith's History," 458; Cowley, Wilford Woodruff; Jessee, "Wilford Woodruff"; Record of Seventies, bk. A, 8, 13, 20; Cook, Revelations, 235–236; Alexander, Life and Times of Wilford Woodruff; Cook, Revelations, 235; Black, Membership of the Church, 478–479; and Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:20–26.

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  • Young, Brigham(1 June 1801–29 August 1877)

    carpenter, painter, glazier; born at Whitingham, Windham Co., Vermont. Son of John Young and Abigail (Nabby) Howe. Brought up in Methodist Episcopal household; later joined the Reformed Methodist church. Moved from Whitingham to Sherburne, Chenango Co., New York, 1804. Located in Genoa, Cayuga Co., area, 1815. Married first Miriam Angeline Works of Aurelius Township, Cayuga Co., 8 October 1824. Resided at Haydenville and then Port Byron, Cayuga Co., following marriage. Lived at Mendon, Monroe Co., New York, when LDS baptism, 15 April 1832, by Eleazer Miller at Mendon. Missions to New York and Canada, 1832–1833. Migrated to Kirtland, 1833. Labored on Kirtland temple. Married second Mary Ann Angell, 18 February 1834, at Kirtland. With Zion's Camp, 1834. Ordained member of original Quorum of the Twelve, 14 February 1835. Missions to New York, Canada, and New England, 1835–1837. Outspoken exponent of JS against dissenters at Kirtland, 1837. Fled Kirtland because of "fury of the mob," 22 December 1837. Joined JS en route to Far West, arriving with him 14 March 1838. With Heber Kimball, instructed by First Presidency from Liberty Jail that temporary "management of the affairs of the Church devolves on you[,] that is the Twelve," 16 January 1839. Continued to direct Mormon evacuation from Missouri. As member of committee on removal, covenanted at Far West to assist the Latter-day Saints in their removal from Missouri, 29 January 1839. Forced to leave Far West for Quincy, Adams Co., Illinois, 14 February 1839. Returned to Far West, Missouri to fulfill requirements of 8 July 1838 revelation (D&C 118), 26 April 1838. Mission to England from Commerce (later Nauvoo), Hancock Co., Illinois, 1839–1841. Elected to Nauvoo city council, 1841. Received endowment at Nauvoo, 4 May 1842. Participated in plural marriage at Nauvoo. Officiator in proxy baptisms for the dead in Nauvoo, 1843. In Boston, Massachusetts, serving special mission on behalf of JS's candidacy for president of the U.S. when JS killed at Carthage, Hancock Co., 27 June 1844. Brigham Young and Twelve sustained at Nauvoo to administer affairs of the church, 8 August 1844. Directed Mormon migration from Nauvoo to Great Basin, 1846–1848. Leader of initial pioneer company to Salt Lake Valley, arriving 24 July 1847. Rebaptized by Heber Kimball, 6 August 1847. Governor of Utah Territory, 1850–1858; superintendent of Indian affairs, 1851–1857. Directed colonization of hundreds of communities in western U.S. Oversaw reorganization of Relief Society, 1866–1867. Restructured priesthood organizations, 1877. Died at Salt Lake City.

    See "History of Brigham Young," Deseret News, 27 January 1858, 369; 3 February 1858, 377; 10 February 1858, 385; 17 February 1858, 393; 24 February 1858, 401; 3 March 1858, 409–411; 10 March 1858, 1; 17 March 1858, 9; 24 March 1858, 17; Arrington, Brigham Young; Esplin, "Emergence of Brigham Young"; Palmer and Butler, Brigham Young; Derr, Cannon, and Beecher, Women of Covenant, 86–88; Hartley, "Priesthood Reorganization of 1877"; Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:8–14; Far West Committee Minutes, January–April 1839; Black and Black, Annotated Record of Baptisms for the Dead, 6:3964–3966; Salt Lake Stake, Record of Baptisms and Re-Baptisms, 22; Cook, Revelations, 279–281; and Cook, Nauvoo Marriages Proxy Sealings, 5n1.

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